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Specification

Webster Dictionary: Specification as a written description of work to be done, forming part of contract and describing qualities of materials and mode of construction and giving dimensions and other information not shown on the drawings Taken form construction documents -Scot, 1964 Specification: A detailed description prepared by a consulting engineer or architect to tell the contractor everything about the workmanship which cannot be shown on the drawings. It is written in the sequence of trades John Gelder , 1995 Specifications , the textual or written description of the works, provide the definition or quality and processes Drawings, the complementary graphical description of the works, define quantity , position , assembly and extent
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Specification
David Standen in book titled Construction Industry Specifications The specification is a record of the design decisions, providing a record of the clients acceptance of decisions that are made by the designer. The specification also provides the client with an understanding of what work he or she is paying for. Not only is a specification important for the contractor but is also plays important part in informing the client on what work is to be undertaken

Specification
Gelder states that the specification is a multi purpose document, including the primary functions decisions: Design recorded detailed design decision Statutory compliance submitted to local councils to demonstrate proposed methods of statutory compliance Pre tender estimates-Preparation of progressive cost estimates Tendering by contractor- Used by tenderers in pricing the work. It is disassembled for subcontract tendering Part of contract in this capacity the specification with the drawings the conditions of contract and perhaps the BQs comprise the contract which legally binds the principal and the contractor On site- an on site instruction manual and statement or requirements , provides rules for assisting conformance of work Disputes Specification will be turned to by arbitrators and courts in case of disputes, an attempt to clarify the principal requirements and to determine what has been agreed Facility management- Requirements for manuals, training and spares will be spelt out in the specification and as a source of information for alterations , additions and demolition
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The role of the specification in a contract


Both the drawing and the specification are similar in that they are components in communicating the designers ideas in logical way and enabling easy access to important information, enables the most efficient way to communicate information to a wide number of parties to the building process Where specifications become particularly important when the working drawings have been finished and the contract prepared. The documents offered to the builder form part of the offer to the builder. If the client agrees to the price submitted by the builder , this is seen as an acceptance of the offer where specifications are important as they describe the work that is to be undertaken i.e. specification writer states 3mm glass but standards call for 6mm laminated glass. Specification is in error and cannot be legally enforced. Writer must be careful to know the building regulations, bylaw and standards and the availability of the products 4

Relationship between drawings and specifications


A building is usually developed by means of 2 documents: the drawings and the specifications Represent a means of communication between the architect and the contractor One is pictorial while the other is written or verbal Both complement one another, should not duplicate or overlap. Duplication can result in differences of meaning The specifications break down the interrelated information shown drawings into separate organised and orderly units of work as technical sections of the specifications

Relationship between drawings and specifications


Drawings: Drawings present a picture of the structure or parts to be erected. Extent, size, shape and location of component parts Location of materials, equipment and fixtures Details and overall dimensions Interrelation of materials, equipment and space Schedules of finishes, windows and doors Sizes of equipment

Relationship between drawings and specifications


Specifications Specifications complement the drawings by describing qualities of materials, system and equipment, workmanship on site and off site fabrication , installation and erection. Specifications describe the following items: Type and quality of materials, equipment and fixtures Quality of workmanship Methods of fabrication, installation and erection Test and code requirement, warranties and guarantees Identification of the contract and the special conditions that apply to the contract Identification of nominated contractors and provisional allowances
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Relationship between drawings and specifications


Coordinating the Design Process The coordination of specifications goes hand in hand with the preparation of the drawings A checklist should be prepared for the development of the specification and drawings noting the changes made on the drawings and specification A consistent terminology be employed i.e sealants of flashings to be identified so that no confusion in a particular application Duplication and confusion that leads to disputes may result in arbitration or litigation resulting in loss to the contractor and eventually increased costs to the client

Standard Methods of Specification Writing


Method of the specification There are two classes of specification Open specification- Contractor design Prescriptive Consultant design

Four Standard methods for specifying information Performance involves the contractor input i.e. stating the problem without specifying the solution Descriptive Specification the traditional way of specification writing i.e. provide and fix 95mm x 50mm framing. Give little scope for contractors discretion Divided into division of material and workmanship All works could be done by observation

Standard Methods of Specification Writing


Proprietary Specification Give limitation to the contractor where they are not be able to shop for alternative There will be an issue of substitutions Seen as limiting competitions Mainly used where the designer to attain aesthetic standards Reference Specification This type of specification will normally in compliance with standard required The main problems is the difficulty in controlling the number of standard and updating the standards Items or workmanship follow the statutory standards
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Standard Methods of Specification Writing


Guaranties and Warranties They are both promises, giving and undertaking to accept liability for consequences of non performance or failure of a person or product or process specified in the promise Warranties involve only two parties while guarantee involve third party Warranty required by law Specify warranty for sub-contractor and a guarantee by main contractor Do not regard defect liability period as substitute for warranties and guaranties

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Type of Drawings
Shop Drawings: Detailed construction fabrications drawings that shoe the proposed material , shape, size of the parts and how the entire unit will be installed Coordination Drawings It comprises of variety of pipes put into one system in the drawing. The drawing is to ensure that those pipes will not touch each other during the installation where all necessary things are displayed on the same drawing. i.e. electrical, water, HVAC, gas system Schematic Drawings The drawing shows the parts of a system without going onto too much details. It can see sketches and quick physical models and visualization of something

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Type of Drawings
Reflected ceiling Drawing It is a mirror images (reflected) view of floor plan looking up at the ceiling The drawing can see the lights and various ceiling elements. It shows the lighting locations, drops of ceiling, light fixtures, switches locations, exhaust fans, exhaust hoods, air diffusers, speakers, alarm devices , track lighting As Build Drawing The final set of drawings produced at the completion of a construction project They include all changes that have been made to the original construction drawings , including more modifications and other information that the builder decides should be included. While the original drawings are typically produced using computer aided design(CAD) software, the as built drawings are usually contain handwritten notes, sketches and changes
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Type of Drawings
Construction Drawing It is a technical drawings used to clearly define the requirements for the engineered parts. A graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another It communicates all needed information from the Engineer and Architect who designed a part to the workers who will make it. The drawing with full particulars , constructional details and buildability Tender Drawing Drawing that are used for estimating and pricing the cost of the building to be constructed

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