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# AERODYNAMICS

## Lecturer : C. W. Fan, Ph.D.

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Yung-Ta Institute of Technology & Commerce

Dec. 2003
Contents
1. Aerodynamics: Some Introductory Thoughts
2. Aerodynamics: Some Fundamental
Principles and Equations
3. Fundamentals of Inviscid, Incompressible
Flow
4. Incompressible Flows Over Airfoils
5. Incompressible Flows Over Finite Wings

Chap.1
Aerodynamics: Some
Introductory Thoughts

OUTLINE
Classification and practical objectives
Some fundamental aerodynamic variables
Aerodynamic forces and moments
Center of pressure
Dimensional analysis
Flow similarity
Types of flow
Classification and practical objectives
Distinction between Solid and Fluid
Under application of shear force
Solid: finite deformation
Fluid: continuously increasing deformation
Classification of fluid dynamics
Hydrodynamics: flow of liquids
Gas dynamics: flow of gases
Aerodynamics: flow of air
Practical objectives of aerodynamics
The prediction of forces and moments on, and
heat transfer to, bodies moving through a fluid
(usually air).
Determination of flows moving internally through
ducts. (ex. Flow properties inside rocket and air-
breathing jet engines)

Some fundamental aerodynamic variables
Pressure:

Density:

Temperature, T
Flow velocity, V
0 , lim
|
.
|

\
|
= dA
dA
dF
p
0 , lim
|
.
|

\
|
= dv
dv
dm

Aerodynamic forces and moments
Aerodynamic forces and moments are due to
Pressure distribution
Shear stress distribution
Nomenclature
R resultant force
L lift
D drag
N normal force
A Axial force
Relation between L,D and N,A

Representation of N, Aand MLE in terms of
pressure p and shear stress t
Primes denote force per unit span
Subscript u denote upper surface while l
denote lower surface
o + o =
o o =
cos sin
sin cos
A N D
A N L
} }
u t u + u t + u =
TE
LE
l l l
TE
LE
u u u
ds p ds p N ) sin cos ( ) sin cos (
'
} }
u t + u + u t + u =
TE
LE
l l l
TE
LE
u u u
'
ds ) cos sin p ( ds ) cos sin p ( A
}
}
u t u + u t + u
+ u t u u t + u =
TE
LE
l l l l l
TE
LE
u u u u u
'
LE
ds ] y ) cos sin p ( x ) sin cos p [(
ds ] y ) cos sin p ( x ) sin cos p [( M
Dimensionless force and moment coefficient
S = reference area ( planform area for wing)
l = reference length (chord length for wing)
Dynamic pressure

Lift coefficient

Drag coefficient

Normal force coefficient

Axial force coefficient

Moment coefficient
2
2
1

= V q
S q
L
C
L

S q
D
C
D

S q
N
C
N

S q
A
C
A

Sl q
M
C
M

Definition
The point on the body about which the
aerodynamic moment is zero.
Location of center of pressure
, if o is small

Center of pressure
'
'
LE
cp
N
M
x =
'
'
LE
cp
L
M
x ~

Dimensional analysis
Factors affecting aerodynamic force R
Freestream velocity V
Freestream density
Viscosity of the fluid
The size of the body (usually represented by the
chord length c)
The compressibility of the fluid a
R=f(, V, c, , a). Dimensional analysis
can reduce the number of independent
parameters affecting R, such that can save
the cost of wind tunnel test.
Buckingham pi theorem
Fundamental dimensions :
m = dimension of mass
l = dimension of length
t = dimension of time
Variables and their dimensions
| |
2
= mlt R | |
3

= ml | |
1

= lt V
| | l c = | |
1 1

= t ml | |
1

= lt a
H products

For H1, assume that

Equating the exponents sum of m to be zero, and
similarly for l and t, we can obtain simultaneous
equations of b, d, e, solving these equations leads to
) , , , (
3 1
R c V f

=
) , , , (
4 2
= c V f
) , , , (
5 3
= a c V f
R c V
e b d

=
1

| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 3
1

= mlt l lt ml
e b d
b = -2, d = -1, e = -2.
Results form H1

Similarly for H2

Re, Reynolds number, is a measure of the ratio of
inertial forces to viscous forces in a flow.
R
C
S q
R
S V
R
c V
R
c V R
=

= =

2
1
2 2
2 2 1
1
2
1

Re
2

c V
For H3

M, Mach number, is the ratio of the flow velocity
to the speed of sound.
CR (also for CL, CD, CM) is function of Re and M.

Re and M are called similarity parameters.

= M
3
a
V
) M (Re, C
6 R
= f

Flow similarity
Definition of dynamically similar for two
different flows
The streamline patterns are geometrically similar.
The distributions of V/V, p/p, etc. are the same
when plotted against common non-dimensional
coordinates.
The force coefficients are the same.
Criteria
The bodies and any other solid boundaries are
geometrically similar.
Same similarity parameters (Re and M).
Example
Assume

Similar flows
T a T ,
1
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
2
2 2 2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
Re
2
) 4 )( 2 )( 4 1 (
Re
M
2
2
M
2
2
4
=

=
= = = =
= =
= = =

d V
d V d V
a
V
a
V
a
V
T
T
a
a
T
T
T
T

Types of flow
Inviscid vs. viscous flow
Inviscid: assume no friction, thermal conduction
and diffusion.
viscous: consider effects of friction, thermal
conduction and diffusion.
Incompressible vs. compressible
Incompressible: density is constant.
Compressible: density is variable.

Mach number regimes
Subsonic flow: M<1 everywhere
Transonic flow: mixed regions where M<1 and M>1
Supersonic flow: M>1 everywhere
Hypersonic flow: very high supersonic speeds,
usually M>5.