\

= dA
dA
dF
p
0 , lim

.

\

= dv
dv
dm
Aerodynamic forces and moments
Aerodynamic forces and moments are due to
Pressure distribution
Shear stress distribution
Nomenclature
R resultant force
L lift
D drag
N normal force
A Axial force
Relation between L,D and N,A
Representation of N, Aand MLE in terms of
pressure p and shear stress t
Primes denote force per unit span
Subscript u denote upper surface while l
denote lower surface
o + o =
o o =
cos sin
sin cos
A N D
A N L
} }
u t u + u t + u =
TE
LE
l l l
TE
LE
u u u
ds p ds p N ) sin cos ( ) sin cos (
'
} }
u t + u + u t + u =
TE
LE
l l l
TE
LE
u u u
'
ds ) cos sin p ( ds ) cos sin p ( A
}
}
u t u + u t + u
+ u t u u t + u =
TE
LE
l l l l l
TE
LE
u u u u u
'
LE
ds ] y ) cos sin p ( x ) sin cos p [(
ds ] y ) cos sin p ( x ) sin cos p [( M
Dimensionless force and moment coefficient
S = reference area ( planform area for wing)
l = reference length (chord length for wing)
Dynamic pressure
Lift coefficient
Drag coefficient
Normal force coefficient
Axial force coefficient
Moment coefficient
2
2
1
= V q
S q
L
C
L
S q
D
C
D
S q
N
C
N
S q
A
C
A
Sl q
M
C
M
Definition
The point on the body about which the
aerodynamic moment is zero.
Location of center of pressure
, if o is small
Center of pressure
'
'
LE
cp
N
M
x =
'
'
LE
cp
L
M
x ~
Dimensional analysis
Factors affecting aerodynamic force R
Freestream velocity V
Freestream density
Viscosity of the fluid
The size of the body (usually represented by the
chord length c)
The compressibility of the fluid a
R=f(, V, c, , a). Dimensional analysis
can reduce the number of independent
parameters affecting R, such that can save
the cost of wind tunnel test.
Buckingham pi theorem
Fundamental dimensions :
m = dimension of mass
l = dimension of length
t = dimension of time
Variables and their dimensions
 
2
= mlt R  
3
= ml  
1
= lt V
  l c =  
1 1
= t ml  
1
= lt a
H products
For H1, assume that
Equating the exponents sum of m to be zero, and
similarly for l and t, we can obtain simultaneous
equations of b, d, e, solving these equations leads to
) , , , (
3 1
R c V f
=
) , , , (
4 2
= c V f
) , , , (
5 3
= a c V f
R c V
e b d
=
1
  ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 3
1
= mlt l lt ml
e b d
b = 2, d = 1, e = 2.
Results form H1
Similarly for H2
Re, Reynolds number, is a measure of the ratio of
inertial forces to viscous forces in a flow.
R
C
S q
R
S V
R
c V
R
c V R
=
= =
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
1
2
1
Re
2
c V
For H3
M, Mach number, is the ratio of the flow velocity
to the speed of sound.
CR (also for CL, CD, CM) is function of Re and M.
Re and M are called similarity parameters.
= M
3
a
V
) M (Re, C
6 R
= f
Flow similarity
Definition of dynamically similar for two
different flows
The streamline patterns are geometrically similar.
The distributions of V/V, p/p, etc. are the same
when plotted against common nondimensional
coordinates.
The force coefficients are the same.
Criteria
The bodies and any other solid boundaries are
geometrically similar.
Same similarity parameters (Re and M).
Example
Assume
Similar flows
T a T ,
1
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
2
2 2 2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
Re
2
) 4 )( 2 )( 4 1 (
Re
M
2
2
M
2
2
4
=
=
= = = =
= =
= = =
d V
d V d V
a
V
a
V
a
V
T
T
a
a
T
T
T
T
Types of flow
Inviscid vs. viscous flow
Inviscid: assume no friction, thermal conduction
and diffusion.
viscous: consider effects of friction, thermal
conduction and diffusion.
Incompressible vs. compressible
Incompressible: density is constant.
Compressible: density is variable.
Mach number regimes
Subsonic flow: M<1 everywhere
Transonic flow: mixed regions where M<1 and M>1
Supersonic flow: M>1 everywhere
Hypersonic flow: very high supersonic speeds,
usually M>5.