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Biomolecules

The Building Blocks of Life


Biomolecules are Organic
Molecules
1. Molecules containing Carbon, Hydrogen,
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, and Phosphorous

2. They make up living organisms

3. Examples: Methane (CH
4
) Glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
) are
all organic molecules

Biomolecules
1. Basic Molecule: Proteins (amino acids),
Carbohydrates (sugars), Lipids (Fats), Nucleic
Acid (DNA, RNA)

2. Macromolecule: Large molecules of the above that
can be broken down.
Ex. Starch into sugar



Biomolecules
1. Subunits: The smaller molecules that are the
building blocks of macro molecules
Sugars that make up starch or cellulose
Amino Acids that make up Proteins
Fatty acids and glycerol make up lipids


Carbohydrate
Simple vs. Complex
sugars

Simple sugars:
Monosaccharide:
One Sugar
We will focus on glucose:
C
6
H
12
0
6

The basic source of organism
energy

Simple
Sugars:Carbohydrates
Simple Sugars:
Disaccharide
Two Sugars

Examples:
Table sugar: sucrose=
Glucose + Fructose

Maltose=
Glucose + Glucose
Complex Sugars:
Polysaccharide
many sugars Complex Sugar.

Functions: Cells use them for energy and structure.

They allow organisms to gradually use energy since
it is stored in a large structure.
Complex Sugars:
Polysaccharide
Starch : has thousands of
glucoses (sugars) bonded
together


Thousands
Complex Sugars:
Polysaccharides
Cellulose: Makes up the walls of plant cells. Also
made from glucose.

Ruminants (cattle, sheep) can digest both cellulose
and glucose.

Humans can digest starch, but not cellulose

Polysaccharides
Glycogen: Animals store carbohydrates (glucose)
in the form of glycogen; similar in form to starch.
Why????

This is why
This is our reserve energy
Stored in liver and muscles
We do not want to lose our carbs all at once!!
Proteins
Made of Amino Acid
Chains

Amino Acids are
bonded through a
peptide bond
Each sphere is
an amino
acid.
Bonded by
peptide
bonds

There are 20
Amino Acids

20 different amino acids

Protein Function
1. Building material: muscle, hair, fingernails
2. Enzymes: Help with chemical reaction in the cells
and body (catalyst)
3. Immunity: make up antibodies
4. Other specific functions such as Hemoglobin:
carry O
2
in red blood cells
Examples of Protein
Structures
The shape of protein is
important to its
function.
Enzyme: Quaternary Structure
Lipids (Fats)
A common lipid
is made of 3 fatty
acids chains
connected to a
glycerol
Lipids (Fats)
Glycerol: a type of alcohol. The back bone of Fats.
3 Fatty acid chains: Long chains of C & H
Saturated=as many C & H bonded as possible (Solid
at Room Temp.)
Unsaturated= C and C bonds can be double (usually
Liquid at Room Temp.)
Lipids (Fats) Functions
The main energy storing molecule because of the
high # of carbon to carbon bonds. Why are bonds
important?
because they Store chemical energy
Lipids store more energy than any other
biomolecule
9 Cal/gram = lipids
4 Cal/gram = carbohydrates and proteins
Lipids (Fats) Functions
Insulate and protect

Main molecule of the
Cell membrane

Make up all
hormones
(testosterone)
Nucleic Acids (DNA)
Deoxyriboose Nucleic Acid (DNA)
Ribose Nucleic Acid (RNA)

DNA
Used to store information inside the
nucleus of each cell.
Used as the energy currency of
the cell, ATP
DNA has 4 different nucleotide
bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and
Thymine
RNA
Used to relay genetic information inside the cell.
Major component of ribosome, which joins amino
acids together to form enzymes.
Genetic material for some viruses.
Questions?
What type of bond connects Amino Acids?
What are lipids composed of?
What are three of the macromolecules of carbohydrates?
What is the sugar subunit?
What are the four types of elements that make up
biomolecules?