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Nombre: Luis Fernando Leal Zavala

Abstract
There are instances at pipeline construction sites that the
unintentional mix up of welding electrodes is encountered at
times.

This changes the weld chemistry and microstructures, which
significantly affects the corrosion characteristics of the welds
and also other mechanical properties. The galvanic corrosion
of the weld zone in a carbon dioxide (CO2) medium was
evaluated.

The results were analyzed using polynomial regression
analysis and found well-fitting with the experimental results.
The equations can be used to determine the corrosion rate for
a particular temperature.
Preferential weld corrosion
Preferential weld corrosion (PWC) is a specific phenomenon
concentrated at the weld zone alone.

A failed carbon steel (CS) pipe weld root from carbon dioxide
(CO2) corrosion (at 6% CO2 gas phase, 93 C with 85% water
cut, and 875 psi), which was treated with 5 ppm of a corrosion
inhibitor, is shown.

The weld had three primary regionsbase metal, weld metal,
and heat-affected zone (HAZ).
Failed weld root corrosion in a CO2 medium.
Experiment
Experiments were conducted using API X65QT pipeline steel to
determine the CO2 corrosion at temperatures ranging from 25 to 80
C under aerated conditions at a constant pH level of 5 using a
potentiostat.

Four types of electrodesE7018, E8018G, E8018B2, and E8018B6
were used in this work.

The weld zones were masked by epoxy coating, leaving the zone of
interest exposed to the medium.

The instantaneous corrosion rate was determined using a galvanic
corrosion technique. The sweep rate was set at 0.125 mV/s. The
corrosion rate was calculated using a data logger and computer
software.
Results
Figures show the galvanic corrosion of a weld and HAZ at various
temperatures.

At pH 5, the weld zone exhibited passive behavior, except that at
temperatures of ~50 to 60 C the base metal became active for a
short period. The HAZ of Electrode E7018 was active and then
became passive at temperatures above 35 C.

The HAZ of four welds exhibited little difference in the level of
passivity, whereas the welds show distinct differences in passivity
level.
This must be caused by the composition effect. The passive nature
of corrosion is caused by the effect of pH level. The weld made with
Electrode E8018 shows a higher level of passivity, possibly caused by
the higher Si and Cr content. As the temperature increases, the
passivity also increases. This may be the result of the scaling effect
at higher temperatures. The

Galvanic corrosion of weld with CO2 under
various temperatures.
Galvanic corrosion of HAZ with CO2 at various
temperatures.