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AVERAGES LEVEL 2

C.S.VEERARAGAVAN

DEFINITION
A measure of Central Tendency
Simple Average (or) Mean is defined as the ratio of sum of
the quantities to the number of quantities.
Sum of the quantities
Average =
No. of the quantities
1 + 2 + 3 +
=

The average of 20 numbers is zero. Of them, at the most,


how many may be greater than zero?
Average = 0.

Average =

sum of 20 numbers
= 0.
20

Hence sum of 20 numbers = 0.

It is possible that 19 numbers may be greater than zero


and if their sum is a ,
then the 20th number should be a.
Hence maximum = 19.

Weighted Average or Mean:

If some body asks you to calculate the combined average


marks of both the sections of class X- A and X- B, when both

sections have 60% and 70% average marks respectively?


Then your answer will be 65% but this is wrong as you do not know
the total number of students in each sections.

So to calculate weighted average, we must have to know the


number of students in both the sections.

Let N1, N2, N3, . Nn be the weights attached to


variable values X1, X2, X3, .. Xn respectively.
Then the weighted arithmetic mean is given by
X

N1X1 N2 X2 N3 X3 ..... Nn Xn
N1 N2 N3 ..... Nn

Example
The average marks of 30 students in a section of class X are 20
while that of 20 students of second section is 30. Find the average
marks for the entire class X.
Solution
We can do the question by using both the Simple average &
weighted average method.
Sum of marks of all students 20 30 30 20
Simple average =
=
Total number of students
30 20

= 24
By the weighted mean method, Average =

30
20
20 +
30
50
50

= 12 + 12 = 24.

Example

The average of 11 results is 50.


If the average of first 6 results is 49 and that of the last 6 is 52,

find the 6th result.


(1) 48

(2) 50

(3) 60

(4) 56

Solution:
The sum of 11 results = 11 50 = 550
The sum of the first 6 results = 49 6 = 294
The sum of the last 6 results = 52 6 = 312
So the 6th result is = (294 + 312) 550 = 56

Answer (4)

Average age of a family of four members is 20. what is the


average age (in years) of the same family of four members
after four years?
1)21
2)24 3) 28 4) 36
If each number is increased / decreased by a certain
quantity
n, then the mean also increases or decreases
by the same quantity.
Answer is 24.

Real Facts About Average

If each number is multiplied/ divided by a


certain quantity n, then the mean also gets
multiplied or divided by the same
quantity.

Example:

If the average of x, y, z is k, then average of


3x, 3y, 3z will be 3k

Real Facts About Average


If the same value is added to half of the
quantities and
same value is subtracted
from other half quantities then there will not
be any change in the final value of the
average.

Example:
If the average of a, b, c, d is k, then average
of a + x, b + x, c x, d x is also k.

The average of the numbers which are in arithmetic progression is


the middle number or the average of the first and last numbers.

Example:
The average of 10 consecutive numbers starting from 21 is the
average of 5th & 6th number, i.e. average of 25 and 26 which is 25.5

Example:

The average of 4, 7, 10, ., 34 =

4+34
= 19
2

The average weight of a class of 40 students is 40 kg. If a


new student, whose weight is 40 kg, joins the class, then
what is the new average weight of the class? 1)40 kg 2)41
kg 3)44 kg 4)80kg.

Total weight of 40 students = 1600 kg.


New average =

1600+40
41

1640
=40
41

kg.

Shortcut: If age of new entrant is the old average then there


will be no change in average.

The average age of 2 groups with the same number of


persons is 30 and 40 respectively.
What is the average age of the 2 groups together?
Let the number of persons be x.
Then Total age of both groups are 30x & 40x.

30x+40x 70x
Average age =
=
=35.
2x
2x

In a company the average height of female employees is


160 cm and the average height of male employee is
170cm.
If the total number of employees is 330, what is the
average height of all the employees of the company?
Since the number of female or male is not given, we
cannot determine the average height of all.

The average weight of girls in a class of 50 students is 40


kg. which of the following could be the average weight of
30 of the boys is 50 kg? 1)42 kg 2) 43 kg 3) 45 kg 4) 47
kg?
If there are exactly 30 boys,
GIRLS

CLASS

BOYS

NUMBER

20

30

AVG WEIGHT

40

50
X

50X

50 20
=
40 30
1500 30X = 20X 800
230
X=
= 46
5

X 40

As there are possibly more boys the average will


be greater than 46 but not less

The average marks scored by girls in a class of 40


students in an examination is 80.
If the number of boys in the class and their average marks
in the same examination are 25 and 72 respectively, what
are the average marks of all the students in the class?
1) 74 2) 75
3) 76
4) 78
Sum of marks of 25 boys = 72 x 25 = 1800
Sum of marks of 15 girls = 80 x 15 = 1200
3000
Average marks of total students =
= 75.
40

In a company, the average salary for female employees is


`.20,000 per month and that of male employees is `.20,000
per month. What is the average salary per month for all
the employees of the company?
1) 19000
2) 20000
3) 21000
4) cannot be determined.
Let number of female be f and male be m.
Average =

20000 +20000()
+

=20000

The average marks scored by Suresh in 5 out of six


subjects is 54. to get an average of 60 in 6 subjects
together, what is the score that Suresh must get in the

sixth subject?
Total marks in 5 subjects = 5x 54 = 270.
Total marks in 6 subjects = 6 x 60 = 360.
Marks in 6th subject should be
= 360 270 = 90.

The ratio of the number of girls to that of boys is 2:3. If the

average weight of girls is 35 kg and that of boys is 40 kg,


what is the average weight of the entire class? (in kg)
1)

36

2) 37

3) 38

Number of girls = 2x and boys = 3x.


Sum of age of girls = 70x and boys = 120x

190x
Average age =
= 38.
5x

4) 39

The average number of chocolates with four is 4.

Another child joins them.


Now, the average number of chocolates with the five children is
5.
What is the number of chocolates with the fifth child?
1) 1

2) 9

3) 5

No of chocolates with four = 4x 4 = 16.


Total no after fifth child joined = 5 x 5 = 25.
Number of chocolates with fifth child = 9.

4) 6

A bag contains 2 kg of potatoes and 3 kg of tomatoes.


If the cost of potatoes is Rs.5 per kg and that of tomatoes
is Rs.8 per kg, then what is the average price per kilogram
of the vegetables in the bag?
1) Rs.6

2) Rs.6.60

3)Rs.6.80

Total cost of potatoes = 10 and tomatoes = 24


10+24
Average cost =
= Rs.6.80
5

4)Rs.7

A total of 44 chocolates were distributed among 10 children such that


each girl gets 5 chocolates and each boy gets 4 chocolates. What is the
number of girls?
1) 6

2) 5

3) 4

4) 3

Average chocolates for girls = 5 and boys = 4.


Total average chocolates for the group = 4.4
Using rule of allegation
a 54.4 0.6 3
=
=
=
b 4.4 4 0.4 2
As a+b = 10, a = 6 and b = 4
Hence there are 4 girls.

5
4.4

0.6

0.4

The average income of a man for first 9 months is Rs.10,000


per month.
Last 3 months is Rs. 20,000.
Then which of the following is necessarily true regarding the

average income per month for the man?


1)

It is between Rs.10,000 and Rs. 15,000.

2)

It is exactly Rs.15,000

3)

It is between Rs.15,000

Mostly the income was 10000.


Hence average also should be closer to 10000

Age of new entrant =


New average + No of old members X change in average.
Example
The average age of 30 boys of a class is equal to 14 years.
When the age of the class teacher is included the average
becomes 15 years.
Find the age of the class teacher.
= 15+30(15-14) = 45 years.

Age of one who left =


New average No. of old members X change in
average.
Example
There are 50 boys in a class. Their average weight is
45 kg. When one boy leaves the class, the average
reduces by 100 gms. Find the weight of the boy who
left the class.
= 44.9-50x(-0.1) = 44.9+5 = 49.9kg.

Age of new person =


Age of the removed person + No. of members x change in
average.
Example
The average weight of 8 men is increased by 1.5 g. when
one of the men who weighs 65 kg is replaced by a new
man. The weight of the new man is:
= 65 + (8x1.5) = 65+12 = 77 kg.

The average monthly salary of 12 workers and 3 managers in a


factory was Rs. 600.
When one of the manager whose salary was Rs. 720, was replaced
with a new manager, then the average salary of the team went down
to 580.

What is the salary of the new manager?


A.

570

B.420

C.690

D.640

Salary of new person =

Salary of the removed person + No. of members x change in average.


Salary of new person = 720 + (15)(-20)
= 720 300
= 420

Average Speed
Total dis tan ce cov ered
Average Speed =
Total time taken

If d1 & d2 are the distances covered at speeds v1 & v2 respectively


and the time taken are t1 & t2 respectively, then the average speed
over the entire distance (d1 + d2) is given by
d d2
Total dis tan ce cov ered
d1 d2
1

t1 t 2
Total time taken
d1
d
2
v1
v2

TIP:

Average speed can never be double or more than double of


any of the two speeds.

Average Speed
# If both the distances are equal i.e. d1 = d2 = d then,
Average speed

2 v 1v 2
v1 v 2

# If both the time taken are equal i.e. t1 = t2 = t then


Average speed

v1 v2
2

Example:

A man travels at a speed of 60 kmph on a journey from A to B


and returns at 100 kmph. Find his average speed for the
journey (in kmph).
(1) 80

(2) 72

(3) 75

(4) None of these

Solution:
Average speed =

2 X 60 X 100
= 75
60+100

Answer (3)

The average of marks obtained by n candidates in a


certain examination is T.
If the average marks of passed candidates is P and that of
failed candidates is F.
Then the number of candidates who PASSED the exam is
n TF
given by:
PF
The average marks obtained by 90 candidates in a certain
examination is 38, if the average marks of passed
candidates is 40 and that of the failed candidates is 30,
what is the number of candidates who passed the exam?
90 3830
Here: n= 90, T=38, F= 30 and P= 40.
= 72.
4030

The average of marks obtained by n candidates in a


certain examination is T.
If the average marks of passed candidates is P and that of
failed candidates is F.
Then the number of candidates who passed the exam is
n PT
given by:
PF
The average marks obtained by 90 candidates in a certain
examination is 38, if the average marks of passed
candidates is 40 and that of the failed candidates is 30,
what is the number of candidates who FAILED the exam?
90 4038
Here: n= 90, T=38, F= 30 and P= 40.
=
4030
18 .

Let the average age of men and women in a town


be x years and the average age of women be y
years and the average age of men be z years.

Then the number of men in that town is

where N indicates the total number of men and


women of the town.

The average age of N persons is x years.


If one new person joins them.
Then the average age is increased by y years.
Then the age of new comer is x + (1 + N) y years

The average age of N persons is x years.


If M persons joins them, the average age is
increased by y years then the average age of new

comers is + 1 +
years

The average age of N persons is x years.


If M persons joins them, the average age is
decreased by y years then the average age of new
comers is x 1 +

years

The average age of N persons is x years.


If M persons left, then the average age is increased by y
years, then the average age of outgoing persons is

+ 1
y years.

The average age of N persons is x years.


If M persons left, then the average age is decreased by y
years. Then the average age of outgoing persons is

1
y years

In a group of N persons whose average age is


increased by y years when a person of x years is
replaced by a new man.
Then the age of new comer is x + Ny years.

The captain of a cricket team of 11 members is 26 years old and the wicket keeper
is 3 years older. If the ages of these two are excluded, the average age of the
remaining players is one year less than the average age of the whole team. What is
the average age of the team?
A. 23 years
B. 24 years
C. 25 years
D. None of these
Let the average age of the whole team by x years.
11x - (26 + 29) = 9(x -1)
11x - 9x = 46

2x = 46
x = 23.
So, average age of the team is 23 years.

The average monthly income of P and Q is Rs. 5050. The average


monthly income of Q and R is Rs. 6250 and the average monthly income
of P and R is Rs. 5200. The monthly income of P is:
A. 3500 B. 4000 C. 4050 D. 5000
Let P, Q and R represent their respective monthly incomes. Then, we
have:
P + Q = (5050 x 2) = 10100 .... (i)
Q + R = (6250 x 2) = 12500 .... (ii)
P + R = (5200 x 2) = 10400 .... (iii)
Adding (i), (ii) and (iii), we get: 2(P + Q + R) = 33000 or P + Q + R =
16500 .... (iv)
Subtracting (ii) from (iv), we get P = 4000.
P's monthly income = Rs. 4000.

The average age of husband, wife and their child 3 years ago
was 27 years and that of wife and the child 5 years ago was
20 years. The present age of the husband is:
A. 35 years B. 40 years C. 50 years D. None of these

Sum of the present ages of husband, wife and child


= (27 x 3 + 3 x 3) years = 90 years.
Sum of the present ages of wife and child
= (20 x 2 + 5 x 2) years = 50 years.
Husband's present age = (90 - 50) years = 40 years.

A car owner buys petrol at Rs.7.50, Rs. 8 and Rs. 8.50 per litre for
three successive years. What approximately is the average cost per
litre of petrol if he spends Rs. 4000 each year?
A.
Rs. 7.98
B.
Rs. 8
C. Rs. 8.50
D.
Rs. 9

4000 4000
Total quantity of petrol consumed in 3 years
=
+
litres
7.50 8.50
2
2
= 4000
+
litres
15 17
76700
=
litres
51
Total amount spent = Rs. (3 x 4000) = Rs. 12000.
12000X51
6120
Average cost = Rs.
= Rs.
= Rs. 7.98
76700
767

In Arun's opinion, his weight is greater than 65 kg but less than 72 kg.
His brother does not agree with Arun and he thinks that Arun's weight is
greater than 60 kg but less than 70 kg. His mother's view is that his
weight cannot be greater than 68 kg. If all are them are correct in their
estimation, what is the average of different probable weights of Arun?
A. 67 kg.
B. 68 kg.
C. 69 kg.
D. Data inadequate
E. None of these
Let Arun's weight by X kg.
According to Arun, 65 < X < 72
According to Arun's brother, 60 < X < 70.
According to Arun's mother, X <= 68
The values satisfying all the above conditions are 66, 67 and 68.
66+67+68 201
Required average =
=
= 67 kg.
3
3

The average weight of A, B and C is 45 kg. If the average weight of A and B be


40 kg and that of B and C be 43 kg, then the weight of B is:
A.
17 kg
B.
20 kg
C.
26 kg
D.
31 kg
Let A, B, C represent their respective weights. Then, we have:

A + B + C = (45 x 3) = 135 .... (i)


A + B = (40 x 2) = 80 .... (ii)
B + C = (43 x 2) = 86 ....(iii)
Adding (ii) and (iii), we get: A + 2B + C = 166 .... (iv)
Subtracting (i) from (iv), we get : B = 31.
B's weight = 31 kg.

The average weight of 16 boys in a class is 50.25 kg


and that of the remaining 8 boys is 45.15 kg. Find the
average weights of all the boys in the class.
A. 47.55 kg
B. 48 kg
C. 48.55 kg
D. 49.25 kg
50.25X16 + 45.15X8
Required average =
16+8
804+361.20
=
24
1165.20
=
24
=48.55

A library has an average of 510 visitors on Sundays


and 240 on other days. The average number of
visitors per day in a month of 30 days beginning
with a Sunday is:
A. 250
B. 276
C. 280
D.
285
Since the month begins with a Sunday, to there will
be five Sundays in the month.

510X5 + 240X25
Required average =
5+25
8550
=
=285
30

If the average marks of three batches of 55, 60 and


45 students respectively is 50, 55, 60, then the
average marks of all the students is:
A. 53.33 B. 54.68 C. 55 D.
None of these

55X50+60X55+45X60
Required Average =
55+60+45
2750+3300+2700
160
=54.68

A pupil's marks were wrongly entered as 83 instead


of 63. Due to that the average marks for the class
got increased by half (1/2). The number of pupils in
the class is:
A.
10 B.
20
C.
40 D.
73
Let there be x pupils in the class.
1

Total increase in marks =


Xx =

= (83 63)
x= 40.

Average of first n natural numbers = (n+1)/2


Average of the squares of the first n natural numbers =
[(n+1)(2n+1)]/6
Average of the cubes of the first n natural numbers =
[n2(n+1)2]/4

Average of the first n even natural numbers = n


Average of the first n odd natural numbers = (n+1)

A man travels a certain distance at x kmph and


an equal distance at y kmph.
Then the average speed during whole journey =
(2xy/(x+y))kmph.
Average of n average is not equal to the { (sum of
n averages )/ n }.

If all values are increased or decreased by a certain


quantity, the average also increases or decreases by
the same quantity.
If all values are multiplied or divided by a certain
quantity, the average also gets multiplied or divided
by the same quantity.

When a new value X is added to a set of B values


with average A, if the average increases by Y, then
the added value X = A + (B + 1)Y.
When a new value X is added to a set of B values
with average A, if the average decreases by Y, then
the added value X = A (B + 1)Y.

When a value X is removed from a set of B values


with average A, if the average increases by Y, then
the deleted value X = A (B 1)Y.
When a value X is removed from a set of B values
with average A, if the average decreases by Y, then
the deleted value X = A + (B 1)Y.

There are twice the number of two wheelers as there are three wheelers and the
number of 4 wheelers are equal to the number of two wheelers.
The average number of wheel per vehicle is
1) 3
2) 4
3) 5
4) None of these.
No. of 2
wheelers

No. of 3
wheelers

No. of 4
wheelers

2x

2x

3 * x = 3x

4 * 2x = 8x

No. of wheels 2 * 2x = 4x
15x
Average wheels = 3x = 5

The average of earnings of a man for


the first four months,
the fifth to the eighth months and
the last four months in a particular year are
Rs.5000 per month, Rs.6000 per month and
Rs.10000 per month respectively.
What is the average salary per month in that year?
1) Rs.6000 2) Rs.7000 3) Rs.8000 4) Rs.9000
Since the period for each of averages is same
5000+6000+10000
21000
Average =
=
= 7000
3
3

Thank you !!

From 10 litre of milk, one litre is taken out and replaced by


one litre of water, then one