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Biological Beginnings

The Evolutionary Perspective


Genetic Foundations of Development
Heredity and Environment interaction:
The Nature-Nurture Debate

Prenatal Development
Birth

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective


Natural selection and adaptive behavior:
Darwin and his observations.
All organisms must adapt in life.
Evolutionary psychology:
Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction,

and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior.


Evolution explains human physical features
and behaviors.

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective


Natural selection and adaptive behavior:
Darwin and his observations.
All organisms must adapt in life.
Evolutionary psychology:
Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction,

and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior.


Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors.
Explaining humans and their behavior:
Larger brains and more complex societies.
Takes longest of all mammals to mature.
Some evolved mechanisms of adaptation not

compatible with modern society.

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolution and Life-Span


Development

Benefits of evolutionary selection decrease with age.


As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase.

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Foundations of
Development

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid


Chromosomes: Thread-like structures
Genes: Units of hereditary information
Human Genome Project: 30,000 genes in humans.

Genetic Foundations

Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

Nucleus (center of
cell) contains
chromosomes and
genes

Chromosomes are
threadlike structures
composed of DNA
molecules

Gene: a segment of DNA


(spiraled double chain)
containing the hereditary
code

Genetic Foundations

The Collaborative Gene


Mitosis: Cell nucleus duplicates.
Meiosis: Cell division forms gametes.
Fertilization: Egg and sperm form zygote.
Genetic variability in the population.
X and Y chromosomes determine sex.
Genes and chromosomes:
Identical and fraternal twins
Mutated gene
Genotype-All of ones genetic makeup
Phenotype-Observable characteristics

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Principles
Sex-linked genes:
X-linked inheritance for males and females.
Poly-genetically determined characteristics:
Many genes interact to influence a trait.
Sex-linked chromosome abnormalities:
Down Syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome- (males-extra X chromosome)
Fragile X syndrome- (abnormality in X chromosome)
Turner syndrome- (females-extra X chromosome)
XYY syndrome- (males-extra Y chromosome)

Genetic Foundations

Gene-Linked Abnormalities
PKU: phenylketonuria
Sickle-cell anemia
Cystic fibrosis
Diabetes
Hemophilia
Genetic disorders can sometimes be

compensated for by other genes or events.


Behavior Genetics:
Studies influence of heredity and environment on individual

differences.
Studies use twins or adoptees:
Monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
Adoption study: examine behavior and psychological

characteristics.

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment
Correlations

In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents.


As children age, their experiences extend

more beyond the familys influence.

Prenatal Development

The Course of Prenatal


Development
Germinal period: 2 weeks after conception
Embryonic period: 2 to 8 weeks after conception
Three layers: endodem, mesoderm, ectoderm
Umbilical cord connect to placenta
Organogenesis
Fetal period
From 2 months after conception to birth
Trimesters of pregnancy

Prenatal Development

The three trimesters of prenatal development


First
trimester

0 - 4 weeks
8 weeks

Less than 1/10th of inch long


Less than 1 inch long

12 weeks

3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce

16 weeks

5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces

Second
trimester 20 weeks

10-12 inches, wt: -1 lbs

24 weeks

11-14 inches, wt: 1-1 lbs

28 weeks

14-17 inches, wt: 2 -3 lbs

Third
trimester 32 weeks

16 -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs

36-38 weeks 19 inches, wt: 6 lbs

Prenatal Development

Prenatal Diagnostic Tests


Ultrasound Sonography
Chorionic Villi Sampling:
Small sample of placenta taken.

Amniocentesis:
Samples amniotic fluid.

Maternal blood test

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal
Development

Teratogen: Agent causing birth defects.


Severity of damage affected by:
Dose
Genetic susceptibility
Time of exposure

Types of Teratogens

Adverse Effects

Teratogen

Prescription Drugs:

Thalidomide

Arm and leg malformation

Warfarin

Mental retardation,
microcephaly(abnormally small head)

Trimethadione

Developmental delay, V-shaped


eyebrows, cleft lip and/or palate

Tetracycline

Tooth malformations

Substances of Abuse:

Heroin

Fetal/newborn addiction, slower growth

Cocaine

Growth retardation; possible long-term


behavioral effects

Solvents

Microcephaly

Social Drugs:

Alcohol

Fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol


effects

Smoking

Spontaneous abortion, growth


retardation

Caffeine

Few human studies. high doses induce


abnormalities in animals.

Disease:

Rubella

Cataracts, deafness, heart defects

Herpes Simplex

Microcephaly, microophthalmia
(abnormally small or absent eyes,
associated with blindness)

Prenatal Development

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development


Psychoactive drugs:
Caffeine
Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Nicotines link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight
Effect of fathers smoking
Cocaine, marijuana, and heroin
Methamphetamine
Environmental hazards and pollutants.
Incompatible blood types of parents:
Rh-positive and Rh-negative
Maternal diseases like German measles, syphilis, HIV and AIDS
Other prenatal factors:
Nutrition, prenatal education and care
Maternal age and risks
Maternal emotional states and stress
Paternal factors
Environmental factors

Birth

Prenatal Care
Prenatal programs:
Education
Medical care
Social and nutritional services
Low birth weight and infant mortality rates
View of pregancy vary among cultures

and ethnic groups

Birth

The Birth Process


Stages of birth:
Stage 1-Uterine contractions
Stage 2-Babys head moves through birth
canal
Stage 3-Afterbirth when placenta,
umbilical cord, and other membranes
are detached and expelled

Birth

Strategies for Childbirth


Home delivery, birthing center, or hospital?
99% of all U.S. births occur in hospitals
Home births more common outside U.S.
Doula as caregiver
Role of midwife, nurse, and physician

Birth

Methods of Delivery
Medication with analgesics (epidural block, oxytocics, etc.)
Possible effects of drugs on fetus
Natural childbirth
Prepared childbirth and the Lamaze method
Cesarean sections for breech babies,

other risks and benefits


Nonmedicated techniques:
Waterbirth more in European countries
Massage reduces pain and anxiety
Acupuncture is standard in China
Hypnosis has some positive effects
Music therapy reduces stress, manages pain

Birth

Assessing the Newborn


Apgar Scale: Evaluates heart, reflexes, and color.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS):

Sensitive index of neurological competence.


Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale
(NNNS): Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses,
and regulatory capacities.

Birth

Low Birth Weight and Preterm


Low birth weight infants:
Weigh less than 5.5 lbs
Very low birth weight:
Less than 3 lbs
Preterm infants:
35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)
Kangaroo care:
Hold infant to promote skin-to-skin contact between infant and

caregiver to promote Better breathing


Longer sleep periods
Weight gain
Less crying
Longer periods of alertness

Birth

Massage Therapy
Leeds to 47% greater weight gain for preterm infants.
Other Benefits:
Labor pain
Asthma
ADHD
Arthritis
Autistic children