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K.1.

PENDAHULUAN
Aplikasi Aerodinamis dalam
bidang engineering, antara lain
pada; penukar kalor Cooling
Tower, Cerobong, Struktur
penyangga anjungan lepas
pantai & Pelabuhan, Kapal Laut
Gandeng (Kapal Tongkang),
Kereta Api &Truk Gandeng,
Bangunan Bertingkat, Dsb.
Bila fluida mengalir melalui
suatu benda, maka akan
kehilangan energi, yang
disebabkan :
a. Pemisahan aliran (separasi
aliran),
karena faktor bentuk
benda.
b. Gaya tahanan karena
gesekan dan
tekanan.

Gambar . Koefisien tahanan (CD) terhadap bilangan Reynolds (Re)


pada silinder persegi

Fluid dynamics is the key to our understanding of some


of the most important phenomena in our physical world:
ocean currents and weather systems.

Aircraft

Vehicles

High-speed rail

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Surface ships

Submarines

Sports & Recreation


Water sports

Cycling

Auto
racing

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Offshore racing

Surfing

One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional


Flows
A flow field is best characterized by its

velocity distribution.
A flow is said to be one-, two-, or
three-dimensional if the flow velocity
varies in one, two, or three
dimensions, respectively.
However, the variation of velocity in
certain directions can be small
relative to the variation in other
directions and can be ignored.

Flow over a car antenna is


approximately twodimensional except near the
top and bottom of the
antenna.

The development of the velocity profile in a circular pipe. V = V(r, z)


and thus the flow is two-dimensional in the entrance region, and
becomes one-dimensional downstream when the velocity profile fully
develops and remains unchanged in the flow direction, V = V(r).

A fluid moving relative to a body exerts a drag force


on the body, partly because of friction caused by

The Wright brothers take flight at


Kitty Hawk.
The Oklahoma Wind Power
Center
near
Woodward
consists of 68 turbines,
1.5 MW each.

Applications of EFD
(contd)

Example of industrial application

ASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight


onditions for scale models--a critical tool in
esigning airplanes.
Application in teaching
57:020 Fluid Mechanics

Fluid dynamics laboratory

Full and model scale

1. Scales: model, and full-scale


2. Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional
analysis
and similarity

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

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Commercial software

CFD software
1. FLUENT: http://www.fluent.com
2. FLOWLAB:
http://www.flowlab.fluent.com
3. CFDRC: http://www.cfdrc.com
4. STAR-CD: http://www.cd-adapco.com
5. CFX/AEA:
http://www.software.aeat.com/cfx

Grid Generation software


1. Gridgen: http://www.pointwise.com
2. GridPro: http://www.gridpro.com

Visualization software
1. Tecplot: http://www.amtec.com
2. Fieldview: http://www.ilight.com

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Hands-on experience using CFD Educational Interface (pipe template)

57:020 Fluid Mechanics

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Hands-on experience using CFD Educational


Interface (airfoil template)

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Fig. 7.1 Comparison of flow past a sharp flat plate at low and
high Reynolds numbers:

Fig. 7.2
Illustration of the
strong
interaction
between viscous
and inviscid
regions in the
rear of bluntbody
flow: (a) idealized
and definitely
false picture of
blunt-body flow;
(b) actual
picture of
bluntbody flow.