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Definition

Mechanics:
Branch of physical
sciences concerned with
the state of rest or
motion of bodies
subjected to forces.
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Chapter 1 General Principles

Engineering Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Rigid Bodies

Statics
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Fluid Mechanics

Deformable Bodies

Dynamics
Chapter 1 General Principles

Rigid Body Mechanics


Statics Bodies at rest
Dynamics Accelerated
motion of bodies

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Chapter 1 General Principles

Basic Quantities
Length

meter
foot

Time

second

Mass

Force

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kilogram
slug
newton
pound

Chapter 1 General Principles

Length
Needed to locate the position
of a point in space and describe
the size of a physical system.

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Chapter 1 General Principles

Time
Conceived as a succession of
events. Concepts of STATICS
are time independent.

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Chapter 1 General Principles

Mass
A property of matter by which we
can compare the action of one
body to another. This property
manifests itself as a gravitational
attraction between two bodies
and provide a qualitative
measure of the resistance of
matter to a change in velocity.
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Chapter 1 General Principles

Force
Generally considered as a push of
a pull exerted by one body on
another. Interaction occurs when
there is direct contact between
the bodies. Gravitational,
electrical and magnetic forces do
not require direct contact. Force
is characterized by magnitude,
direction and point of application.

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Chapter 1 General Principles

Idealizations
1. Particle - an object having mass

but the size is neglected.


2. Rigid Body - a combination of a
large number of particles which
remain in a fixed position relative
to each other, both before and
after the application of a force.
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Chapter 1 General Principles

Newtons Three Laws of


Motion
First Law: A particle originally at rest, or
moving in a straight line with constant
velocity, will remain in this state
provided the particle is not subjected
to unbalanced forces.

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Newtons Three Laws of


Motion
Second Law: A particle acted upon by an
unbalanced force F experiences an
acceleration a that has the same direction
as the force and a magnitude that is
directly proportional to the force. If F is
applied to a particle of mass m then: F =
ma.

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Newtons Three Laws of


Motion
Third Law: The mutual forces of
action and reaction between two
particles are equal, opposite and
collinear.

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Newtons Laws of
Gravitational Attraction
m 1m 2
FG
2
r

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Where:
F = force of gravitation
G = universal constant
of gravitation
m1,m2= mass of two
particles
r = distance between
two particles

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Units
1. Basic quantities (force, mass,

length, time) are related by


Newtons second law.
2. Units used to measure quantities
are not all independent.
3. Three of four units, called base
units, are arbitrarily defined and
the fourth is derived.

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SI Units
1. Modern version of metric system.
2. Base units are length, time and mass,
meter (m), second (s), and kilogram
(kg)
3. Acceleration of gravity:

m
g 9.81 2
s

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SI Units
4. Force is derived quantity measured in
unit called a newton

kg m
1N 1
2
s

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U.S. Customary Units (fps)


1. Base units are length, time and
force.
2. feet (ft), second (s), and pound
(lb)
ft
3. Acceleration
of gravity:
g 32.2

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U.S. Customary Units (fps)


4. Mass is derived quantity
measured in a unit called a slug:

lb s
1 slug 1
ft
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Systems of Units
Name
SI

US
Customar
y

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Length

Time

Mass

Force

meter second kilogra newto


m
n
(m)
(s)
(kg)
(N)
foot
(ft)

second
slug
pound
(s)
(lb s2/ft
(lb

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Unit
Conversions
Unit Conversions

Force : 1 lb 4.4482 N
Mass : 1 slug 14.5938 kg
Length : 1 ft 0.3048 m

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Prefixes for SI units


Multiple
1,000,000,000
1,000,000
1,000
Submultiple
0.001
0.000001
0.00000001

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Exponential form

Prefix

SI
symbol

109
106
103

giga
mega
kilo

G
M
k

10-3
10-6
10-9

milli
micro
nano

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Concepts to Study
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dimensional Homogeneity
Significant Figures
Rounding Off Numbers
Calculations

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Dimensional Homogeneity
Each of the terms of an equation must
be expressed in the same units.
s = v t + 1/2 a t2
s is position in meters
v is velocity in m/s
a is acceleration in m/s2
t is time in seconds
m = m/s s + m/s2 s2 = m
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Significant Figures
1. Accuracy specified by number of
significant figures.
2. Defined as any digit including a
zero (provided it is not used to
specify the location of a decimal
point).
3. 5604 and 34.52 both have four
significant figures
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Engineering Notation
1. Does 40 have one or two
significant figures?
2. Engineering notation uses
powers of ten with exponents in
multiples of three.
3. 40 written as 0.04 (103) is forty
to one significant figure and
0.040 (103) is forty to two
significant figures.
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Calculations
When performing calculations
retain a greater number of
digits than the problem data.
Engineers usually round off
final answer to three
significant figures.
Intermediate calculations are
usually done to four
significant figures.
Answer can never have more
significant figures than given
data!

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Convert 2 km/h to m/s. How many ft/s

km
1000
m
1
h

2 kmis this?
2

h
SOLUTION:
h km 3600 s
Since 1 km = 1000 m and 1 h = 3600 s, the conversion
factors2000
are arranged
so that a cancellation of units can
m
2 kmbe applied.

0.555 5 0.556 m
h

3600 s

m
m
1 ft
ft
ft
0.556
0.556
1.824 1.82

s
s 0.3048 m
s
s
Recall that 1 ft = 0.3038 m

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Procedure for Analysis


1. Read the problem carefully and
correlate the actual physical
situation with the theory studied.
2. Draw necessary diagrams and
tables.
3. Apply relevant principles,
generally in mathematical form.
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Procedure for Analysis


4. Solve the equations algebraically (without
5.
6.
7.
8.

numbers) as far as possible, then obtain a


numerical answer.
Be sure to use a consistent set of units.
Report the answer with no more
significant figures than the accuracy of the
given data.
Decide if answer seems reasonable.
Think about what the problem taught you!

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