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PHY10 Lesson 2

Motion Along a
Straight Line

Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity


Consider the motion of a car below.

At time t1 = 1s , the car is at position x1 =19m and At time t2 = 4s


, the car is at position x2 = 277m.
x x2 x1 277 m 19m 258m
The displacement of the car
is:
t t 2 t1 4 s 1s 3s
The time interval is:
The average velocity of the car
is:

x
vav
t
vav

x2 x1
vav
t 2 t1

258m
86m / s
3s

t (s)

x (m)

x (m)

x (m)

Graphs of Motion Part 1: Position vs. Time

t (s)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
positive direction.

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
negative direction.

x (m)

x (m)

The object is at
rest.

t (s)

t (s)

The object is moving


with
increasing
velocity
(accelerating).

t (s)

The object is moving


with
decreasing
velocity
(decelerating).

EXAMPLE 1:

(a)
speed

average

vave

(200m) (280m)
480m

4.4m / s
200m
280m
5m / s 4m / s
40 s 70s

(b) average velocity

vave

(200m) (280m)
80m

0.73m / s
200m
280m
5m / s 4m / s
40 s 70 s

Instantaneous Velocity
instantaneous velocity (v) is the velocity of a body at a specific
instant of time or at any specific point along the path.
instantaneous velocity (v) is the limit of average velocity of a
body as the time interval approaches zero.

x
v(t ) lim
t 0 t
instantaneous velocity (v) is the derivative of displacement
with respect to time.

dx
v(t )
dt

EXAMPLE
2:

(a)

x(t ) (2.40m / s 2 )t 2 (0.120m / s 3 )t 3


x(0) (2.40)(0) 2 (0.120)(0) 3 0
x(10) (2.40)(10) 2 (0.120)(10) 3 120m

vave

x2 x1 120m 0

12m / s
t 2 t1
10m 0

EXAMPLE
2:

(b)

dx d
v(t )
( 2.40t 2 0.120t 3 ) (4.80m / s 2 )t (0.360m / s 3 )t 2
dt dt
v(0) ( 4.80)(0) (0.360)( 0) 2 0
v(5) (4.80)(5) (0.360)(5) 2 15m / s
v(10) (4.80)(10) (0.360)(10) 2 12m / s

(c)

0 4.80t 0.360t 2

t 13.3s

Average and Instantaneous Acceleration


acceleration (a) is the time rate of change in velocity.

average
(aav)

acceleration

v v2 v1
aav

t t 2 t1

instantaneous acceleration (a) is the limit


acceleration as the time interval approaches zero.

v
a (t ) lim
t 0 t

dv
a (t )
dt

of

average

EXAMPLE
3:

(a)

v(t ) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )t 2


v(0) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )(0) 2 3.00m / s
v(5) (3.00m / s ) (0.100m / s 3 )(5s ) 2 0.500m / s
v v (3.00m / s ) (0.500m / s )
aave 2 1
0.500m / s 2
t 2 t1
(5s 0)

(b)

a (t ) (0.200m / s 3 )t

a (0) (0.200m / s 3 )(0) 0


a (5) (0.200m / s 3 )(5s ) 1.00m / s 2

EXAMPLE
3:

(c)

Graphs of Motion Part 2: Velocity vs. Time

t (s)

v
(m/s)

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

t (s)

t (s)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
positive direction.

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
negative direction.

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

The object is at
rest.

t (s)

The object is moving


with
increasing
velocity
(uniformly
accelerating).

t (s)

The object is moving


with
decreasing
velocity
(uniformly
decelerating).

a
(m/s2)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
positive direction.

t (s)

The object is moving


with
increasing
velocity
(uniformly
accelerating).

a
(m/s2)

t (s)

t (s)

The object is moving


with
constant
velocity
in
the
negative direction.
a
(m/s2)

a
(m/s2)

Graphs of Motion Part 3: Acceleration vs.


Time

t (s)

The object is moving


with
decreasing
velocity
(uniformly
decelerating).

Uniformly Accelerated Motion (UAM)


uniformly accelerated
acceleration.

motion

is

motion

with

Equations of Uniformly Accelerated


Motion
x
assuming that t0 = 0.
Equation 1: vav

Equation 2:

vo v
vav
2

Equation 3:

v vo
a
t

assuming that t0 = 0.

constant

Equations of Uniformly Accelerated


Motion
x

dx
Recall: v
dt
Equation 4:

dv
Recall: a
dt

xo

x xo vot 12 at 2

dv a dt

to

to

dx vdt (vo at )dt

x vo t 12 at 2
dx
vdv
a dt adx
dt

1 v 2 vo

x xo

a 2
2
2

1 v
xo dx a vo vdv
x

v vo
x
2a
2

Equation 5:

dx v dt

EXAMPLE
4:

GIVEN: x = 70.0m ; t = 7.00 s ; v = 15.0 m/s


FIND: (a) vo and (b) a
(a)

x 70m
vav

10.0m / s
t
7s

vav

v vo 15m / s vo

10.0m / s
2
2

vo 2(10m / s ) (15m / s ) 5.00m / s


(b)

v vo (15m / s ) (5m / s )
a

1.43m / s 2
t
7s

#5:

#5:

Chapter 02, Problem 015


A particle's position is given by x = 10.0 - 12.00t + 3t2, in which x is in meters and t is
in seconds. (a) What is its velocity at t= 1 s? (b) Is it moving in the positive or
negative direction of x just then? (c) What is its speed just then? (d) Is the speed
increasing or decreasing just then? (Try answering the next two questions without
further calculation.) (e) Is there ever an instant when the velocity is zero? If so, give
the time t; if not, answer "0". (f) Is there a time after t = 3 s when the particle is
moving in the negative direction of x? If so, give the time t; if not, answer "0".

Chapter 02, Problem 017


The position of a particle moving along the x axis is given in centimeters
by x = 9.17 + 1.17 t3, where t is in seconds. Calculate(a) the average
velocity during the time interval t = 2.00 s to t = 3.00 s; (b) the
instantaneous velocity at t = 2.00 s; (c) the instantaneous velocity at
t = 3.00 s; (d) the instantaneous velocity at t = 2.50 s; and (e) the
instantaneous velocity when the particle is midway between its positions
at t = 2.00 s and t = 3.00 s.

Chapter 02, Problem 038


(a) If the maximum acceleration that is tolerable for passengers in a
subway train is 1.74 m/s2 and subway stations are located806 m apart,
what is the maximum speed a subway train can attain between
stations? (b) What is the travel time between stations? (c) If a subway
train stops for 23.0 s at each station, what is the maximum average
speed of the train, from one start-up to the next?

Chapter 02, Problem 040


You are driving toward a traffic signal when it turns yellow. Your speed is
the legal speed limit of v0 = 55 km/h; your best deceleration rate has the
magnitude a = 5.18 m/s2. Your best reaction time to begin braking is t =
0.75 s. To avoid having the front of your car enter the intersection after
the light turns red, should you brake to a stop or continue to move at 55
km/h if the distance to the intersection and the duration of the yellow
light are (a) 37 m and 2.9 s, and (b) 32 m and 1.6 s? Give an answer of
brake, continue, either (if either strategy works), or neither (if neither
strategy
works
and
the
yellow
duration
is
inappropriate).

Free Fall (UAM along the y-axis)


free fall is motion under the action of the force of gravity alone
(air resistance is neglected).
a freely-falling body has a constant acceleration called the
acceleration due to gravity g = - 9.80 m/s2 (always directed
downward).

Equations of Free
Fall
Equation 1: vav
Equation 2:
Equation 3:
Equation 4:
Equation 5:

y
t
vo v
vav
2
v vo
g
t
y vo t 12 gt 2

v 2 vo
y
2g

NOTE: Follow correct sign


convention. All quantities with
downward
direction
should
have a negative sign.
downward velocity: - v
upward velocity: +v
downward displacement: - y
upward displacement: + y
acceleration: g= -9.80 m/s2

#6:

#7:

ANSWERS:
(a) y1 = 10.1m; v1 = 5.2 m/s and y4 = -18.4 m; v1 =-24.2 m/s
(b) v =11.3 m/s (c) y =+11.5 m

(d) a = g = - 9.8
m/s2

#
8

Chapter 02, Problem 054


A stone is dropped into a river from a bridge 45.4 m above the water.
Another stone is thrown vertically down 1.91 s after the first is dropped.
Both stones strike the water at the same time. What is the initial speed of
the second stone?
Answer: 34.5 m/s
Chapter 02, Problem 060
A rock is thrown vertically upward from ground level at time t = 0.
At t = 1.7 s it passes the top of a tall tower, and 1.2 s later it reaches
its maximum height. What is the height of the tower?
Answers: 34 m
Chapter 02, Problem 062
A basketball player grabbing a rebound jumps 77 cm vertically. How much
total time (ascent and descent) does the player spend(a) in the top 10
cm of this jump and (b) in the bottom 10 cm? Do your results explain
why such players seem to hang in the air at the top of a jump?
Answers: (a) 0.286 s (b) 0.0533s

Chapter 02, Problem 063


A drowsy cat is looking at a window from across the room, and sees a
flowerpot that sail first up and then down past the window. The pot is
in view for a total of 0.46 s, and the top-to-bottom height of the
window is 2.02 m. How high above the window top does the flowerpot
go?
Answers: 2.99 m

Projectile Motion
A body moving with constant horizontal velocity while in free fall is
called a projectile and its motion is called projectile motion.
velocity of projectile:
2

v vx v y

v x vo cos
v y vo sin gt

tan

vy
vx

Motion along x-axis: constant velocity

x
vx
t

vo sin 2
R
|g|
2

Motion along y-axis: free fall

v y vo sin gt
y vo sin t gt
1
2

v y vo y
2g

H ymax

vo sin

2| g |

Chapter 04, Problem 023


A projectile is fired horizontally from a gun that is 35.0 m above flat
ground, emerging from the gun with a speed of 170 m/s. (a)How long
does the projectile remain in the air? (b) At what horizontal distance
from the firing point does it strike the ground? (c)What is the magnitude
of the vertical component of its velocity as it strikes the ground?
Answers: (a) 2.67 s (b) 454 m (c) 26.2 m/s

Chapter 04, Problem 027


A certain airplane has a speed of 261.5 km/h and is diving at an angle
of = 29.0 below the horizontal when the pilot releases a radar decoy
(see the figure). The horizontal distance between the release point and
the point where the decoy strikes the ground is d = 633 m. (a) How long
is the decoy in the air? (b) How high was the release point?
Answers: (a) 9.96 s (b) 837 m

Chapter 04, Problem 028


In the figure, a stone is projected at a cliff of height h with an initial
speed of 49.0 m/s directed at an angle 0 = 55.0 above the horizontal.
The stone strikes at A, 5.76 s after launching. Find (a) the height h of the
cliff, (b) the speed of the stone just before impact at A, and (c) the
maximum height H reached above the ground.

Chapter 04, Problem 045


In the figure, a ball is launched with a velocity of magnitude 8.00 m/s, at
an angle of 47.0 to the horizontal. The launch point is at the base of a
ramp of horizontal lengthd1 = 6.00 m and height d2 = 3.60 m. A plateau
is located at the top of the ramp. (a) Does the ball land on the ramp or
the plateau? When it lands, what are the (b)magnitude and (c) angle of
its displacement from the launch point?

Answers: (a) 17.8 m/s


(b) in the river, 28.5 m from
the near bank