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# Temperature

Heat

## Is the degree of hotness

Is a form of energy

Is a base quantity

Is a derived quantity

## Depends upon the kinetic

energy of the molecules

## Depend upon temperature,

mass and type of molecules

## The S.I unit is Joule, J

Measured by thermometer

Kalori Metre

Kelvin,K
c = ( + 273 ) K

## Two substances are said to be in thermal

contact, when heat flow from substances to
another it is in contact with.
Heat flow according to temperature
differences.
Example:
-From high temperature to lower
temperature.

## Energy is transffered at a faster rate from

the hotter object to the colder object.
Energy is also transferred from the colder
object to the hotter one, but at a slower
rate.

## There is a net flow of energy from the

hotter object to the colder object.

## Two bodies in thermal contact are said to be

in thermal equilibrium when it reach the
same temperature and the net rate of heat
transfer between the two bodies is zero.

## Example of thermal equilibrium

A wet towel is placed on the forehead of a
person who has high fever. Initially the
temperature of the cloth is lower than the
body temperature of the person. Heat energy
is transferred from the forehead to the towel
until thermal equilibrium is reached. The
towel is rinsed in tap water and the
procedure is repeated. In this way heat
energy is removed from the person.

## When a thermometer is in thermal contact

with a substance (for example hot water)
Heats flow from the hot water to the
thermometer (mercury)
When thermal equilibrium is reached, the
net rate of heat transfer between the two
substances is zero.
The temperature of the thermometer is same
as the temperature of the hot water
Hence by showing its own temperature, the
thermometer also reads the temperature of
the hot water.

Thermometer

Thermometric property

Gas thermometer

Gas pressure

Mercury thermometer

Volume of mercury

Resistance thermometer

## Electrical resistance of platinum

Thermocouple thermometer

## Electrical potential difference

(e.m.f) between the two
junctions of the different metal
wires.

## 1. A temperature scale is obtained by

choosing two temperatures, called the
fixed point.
2. Definition of ice point and steam
point

Fixed point

Definition

Value

Lower point:
Ice Point

The temperature of
pure melting ice at
standard atmospheric
pressure

0C

Upper point:
steam point

The temperature of
steam at standard
atmospheric pressure

100C

## When the two fixed

points have been
marked on the stem of
the thermometer, the
range between them is
divided equally into
100 divisions or
degrees. The
thermometer now has
a scale.

Heat capacity, C
The amount of heat required to change its
temperature by one degree.
Specific Heat capacity, c
The amount of heat that must be supplied to
increase the temperature by 1 C for a mass of
1 kg of the substances.

SI unit: = J kg-1C-1

## A substances with a large heat specific

capacity (able to store more heat) will
experience a small temperature rise when
absorbing heat and vice versa.

## Quantity of heat absorbed or lost by a

substances
Q=mc
Q = the heat energy transferred to the
substances
m = the mass of substance
c = the specific heat capacity of the
substance
= the temperature change

ASPECTS

SPECIFIC HEAT
CAPACITY

HEAT CAPACITY

Symbol

General unit

Relates to a material:
J kg -1 0C-1

Relates to a particular
object: J 0C-1

Value

## Fixed for a material

regardless of its mass

## Not fixed, depends on

the mass of the object

Formula

Q = mc

Q = C

Relationship between
c and C

C = mc

Cooking pot

a)Copper base

b) Wooden Handle

c) Alumni body

## Low specific heat capacity. The pot

becomes hot very quickly. This enables quick
cooking of the food in the pot.
High density. The heavier base ensures
that the pot is stable and will not topple
over easily.
Large specific heat capacity. The handle
Large specific heat capacity. The handle
will not become too hot when heat is
absorbed.
Poor conductor of heat.
Relatively low specific heat capacity. The

## pot becomes hot

Land Breeze
At night, heat is lost from the land
and sea.
Sea has a larger specific heat
capacity so sea is warmer than land.
Warmer air above the sea rises
Cooler air from the land moves
towards the sea as land breeze.

Sea Breeze
Land has a smaller specific heat
capacity than sea. Faster increase in
temperature, ie land is warmer than the
sea
Air above the land is heated up and
rises.
Cooler air from the sea moves from
towards the land as sea breeze

## Water has a high specific heat capacity and

lower cost. So water can be a useful a cooling
agent. A water pump circulates the water.
Heat produced by the engine is absorbed by the
water that flows along the space in engine
walls. The hot water flows to the radiator
where heat is lost to the cooler air that flows
through the cooling fans.

## The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant

temperature during change of phase.

## 4 main Changes of phase

When a solid melts, latent heat of
fusion is absorbed but the
temperature remains constant at
its melting point
For a liquid to solidify at its
freezing point, latent heat of fusion
has to be removed.
When a liquid is boiling, latent
heat of vaporization is absorbed
but the temperature remains
constant at its boiling point.
When vapour condenses back into
the liquid phase, latent heat of
vaporization is released.

## The amount of heat required to change the

phase of 1 kg of the substance at a constant
temperature.

l=Q

unit : J kg-1

m
l = the specific of latent heat of the
substances
Q = latent heat absorbed or released by the

substance
m = mass of the substance

## The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of the

substance from solid to liquid phase without a
change in temperature
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 3.36 x 105
Jkg-1

## The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of the

substance from the liquid to gaseous phase without
a change in temperature
Specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2.26
x 106 Jkg-1
Q = ml

Q=Pt=ml

## Q = the heat energy trnasfer to the

substances
P = power of the heater, unit in W,
t = time , unit is seconds
m = mass of the substances
l = specific latent heat

## Drinks can be cooled by adding in several

cubes of ice. When ice melts a large amount of
heat is absorbed and this lowers the
temperature of the drink.
Always be very careful when opening the lid
of a pot when the water in it is boiling. Water
has a large specific latent heat of vaporization.
When steam condenses on the skin of your
arm, the very large amount of latent heat
released can cause a serious burn
Our bodies feel cool after sweating. This is
because latent heat of vaporization is
absorbed from the body when sweat
evaporates. As a result, the body is cooled by
the removal of heat.

Boyless Law

Charles Law

Pressures Law

## Boyless Law states

that for a fixed mass
of gas, the pressure
of the gas, P is
inversely
proportional to its
volume, V when the
temperature, T is
kept constant .

## Charles law states

that for a fixed mass
of gas, the volume of
the gas, V is directly
proportional to its
absolute
temperature, T when
its pressure, P is kept
constant.

## Pressures Law states

that for a fixed mass
of gas, the pressure
of the gas, P is
directly proportional
to its absolute
temperature, T when
its volume, V is kept
constant.

V1 = V 2
T1 T2

P1 = P 2
T1 T2

Boyless Law

Charles Law

Pressures Law

Boyless Law

Charles Law

Pressures Law

## When the volume of a gas is

decreased, the number of
molecules per unit volume
increases.
The same number of
molecules moves in a smaller
space.
The molecules collide more
frequently with the walls of
the container.
This increase in the rate of
collision results in an increase
in the pressure exerted by the
gas.

## When a gas is heated, the

average kinetic energy of the
molecules increases. The
temperature of the gas
increases.
The rate of collision between
the molecules and the walls
will increase if the volume is
constant.
It the gas is allowed to
expand, the faster molecules
now move in a bigger space.
Therefore, the rate of
collision between the
molecules and the walls
remain constant and thus the
pressure is constant.

## When a gas is heated, the

average kinetic energy
increases. The temperature of
the gas increases.
The faster moving molecules
strike the walls of the
container more frequently.
Thus, the pressure of the gas
increases.