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6
  

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ðtep 1: For simplicity, we collect only 5 samples. n practice,
more than 20 samples would be desirable. he data are
shown in the following table.

% %  ) % "


-  * O *  *  * $
O .&.O$ .&. .&../ .&.6
 .&.O .&.$O .&.$ .&..
 .&.O0 .&., .&.& .&.
$ .&..0 .&.$ .&.$ .&.O&
&.&.$O .&.&, .&.$ .&.$6

0
  
ðtep 2: Compute the range for each sample by subtracting the
lowest value from the highest value. For example, in sample
1 the range is 0.5027 ± 0.5009 = 0.0018 in. ðimilarly, the
ranges for samples 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 0.0021, 0.0017, 0.0026,
and 0.0022 in., respectively. As shown in the table, ` =
0.0021.
.&.61 .&../ 2...O0
%  ) % "
% %
-  * O *  *  * $ 
O .&.O$ .&. .&../ .&.6 ...O0
 .&.O .&.$O .&.$.&.....O
 .&.O0 .&., .&.& .&....O6
$ .&..0 .&.$ .&.$ .&.O& ...,
& .&.$O .&.&, .&.$ .&./ ...
/
2 ...O
  

ðtep 3: o construct the `-chart, select the appropriate constants


from able for a sample size of 4. he control limits are

K   K 


%    3ï3  4ï3 
% ï ï
 5 5$
 . ,6
 . &6&
$ . 0
& . OO&
2 ...O , . ..$
6 ..6, O/$
5$ 20 0 .O, O0,$
/ .O0$ O0O,
5 2. O. . O666

4ï3 25$20 ...O2...$6/ 


O.
3ï3 252. ...O2. 
  
ðtep 4: Plot the ranges on the `-chart, as shown in Figure 5.10. one
of the sample ranges falls outside the control limits so the
process variability is in statistical control. f any of the
sample ranges fall outside of the limits, or an unusual pattern
appears, we would search for the causes of the excessive
variability, correct them, and repeat step 1.

OO
  
ðtep 1: Compute the mean for each sample. For example, the mean
for sample 1 is
.&.O$6.&.6.&../6.&.67$2.&.O0

%  ) % "


% %
-  * O *  *  * $ 
O .&.O$ .&. .&../ .&.6 .&.O0
 .&.O .&.$O .&.$.&...&.6
 .&.O0 .&.,.&.&.&..&.,
$ .&..0 .&.$ .&.$ .&.O& .&..
& .&.$O .&.&, .&.$ .&./ .&.$&

2.&.6
O
   
ðtep 2: ow construct the þ-chart for the process average. he average
screw diameter is 0.5027 in., and the average range is 0.0021 in.,
so use þ = 0.5027, ` = 0.0021, and 2 from able 5.1 for a
sample size of 4 to construct the control limits:

K  
 
  

 
 
 
 
 
 

2...O 2.6/ 2
82.&.6

2
4ï38 286 2.&.6 6.6/ ...O2.&.$ 
2  2.&.6 1 .6/ ...O2.&.O 
3ï38 28 
O
   
ðtep 3: Plot the sample means on the control chart, as shown in Figure
5.11.
he mean of sample 5 falls above the C, indicating that the
process average is out of statistical control and that assignable
causes must be explored, perhaps using a cause-and-effect
diagram.
%    K     
¢           

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Average and range chart not applied

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