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ðtep 1: For simplicity, we collect only 5 samples. n practice,
more than 20 samples would be desirable. he data are
shown in the following table.
0
ðtep 2: Compute the range for each sample by subtracting the
lowest value from the highest value. For example, in sample
1 the range is 0.5027 ± 0.5009 = 0.0018 in. ðimilarly, the
ranges for samples 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 0.0021, 0.0017, 0.0026,
and 0.0022 in., respectively. As shown in the table, ` =
0.0021.
.&.61 .&../ 2...O0
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* O * * * $
O .&.O$ .&. .&../ .&.6 ...O0
.&.O .&.$O .&.$.&.....O
.&.O0 .&., .&.& .&....O6
$ .&..0 .&.$ .&.$ .&.O& ...,
& .&.$O .&.&, .&.$ .&./ ...
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2 ...O
OO
ðtep 1: Compute the mean for each sample. For example, the mean
for sample 1 is
.&.O$6.&.6.&../6.&.67$2.&.O0
2.&.6
O
ðtep 2: ow construct the þchart for the process average. he average
screw diameter is 0.5027 in., and the average range is 0.0021 in.,
so use þ = 0.5027, ` = 0.0021, and 2 from able 5.1 for a
sample size of 4 to construct the control limits:
K
2...O 2.6/ 2
82.&.6
2
4ï38 286 2.&.6 6.6/ ...O2.&.$
2 2.&.6 1 .6/ ...O2.&.O
3ï38 28
O
ðtep 3: Plot the sample means on the control chart, as shown in Figure
5.11.
he mean of sample 5 falls above the C, indicating that the
process average is out of statistical control and that assignable
causes must be explored, perhaps using a causeandeffect
diagram.
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