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COOPER

High electrical and thermal conductivity


Good durability in mildly corrosive chemical
Excellent ductility for forming complex shapes
Often alloyed with others metals to improve its mechanical properties and
corrosion resistance
Its corrosion resistance is poor against most acids and salts but hight to
alkali
Heat capacity Cp=0.093 kcal/kgC
melting temperature t=1083oC
thermal conductivity =334 kcal/mChr
liner expansion coefficient =1.65x10-5
Youngs modulus E=1,080,000 kg/cm2
molding temperature 1150oC

COOPER ALLOYS
Brasses: contain more than 50% cooper
used to overcome the softness, low
tensile strength and high casting
temperature of the pure metal

COOPER ALLOYS
Tin Bronzes contain additional alloying elements

Phosphor Bronze has the best corrosion resistance of the


alloys listed, they are used in applications involving
contact with dilute acid solutions

COOPER ALLOYS
Aluminum and Manganese Bronzes (512%)
High strength, good corrosion resistance
and good oxidation up to 400oC
Silicon Bronzes ( up to 3%)
High machenical and antifriction
properties

COOPER RESISTANCE
Cooper and its alloys are resistant to
dilute solutions of serveral mineral acid
and to a wide range of organic acids.
Aluminum bronze is suitable in slightly
oxidizing situations.
Cooper-base alloys are resistant to most
alkaline solutions, most neutral salts
except to those forming soluble
complexes

ALUMINUM AND ITS


ALLOYS
High heat conductivity, low specific
gravity, high ductility providing good
rolling and cold hot stamping.
Poor castability, poor cutting and slow
strength.

ALUMINUM ALLOYS
Aluminum of Commercial 99% Minimum
Aluminum Purity
High corrosion resistance and high thermal
conductivity
The strength of aluminum can be increased
by cooling working
Nonheat-Treatable Magnesium and
Manganese Aluminum
These present the best compromise between
corrosion resistancen and strength

ALUMINUM ALLOYS
Casting alloys
These are used as corrosion-resistant
materials
The alloys containing substantial amounts
of silicon have the best foundry
characteristics and a high resistance to
corrosion

Corrosion resistance
Aluminum can be thickened by anodizing in a
bath of 15% sulfuric acid solution or by cladding
with a thin layer of an aluminum alloy containing
1% zinc to control oxidation.
Aluminum is suitable for contacting with cold
dilute sulfuric acid solutions. It may be used for
handling oleum, however, the passivity of the
metal with sulfuric acid is soon destroyed as the
temperature rises and the boiling solutions of
any acid of any concentration attacks
Aluminum is used almost interchangeable for
any strength of nitric acid

CARBON, GRAPHITE AND


GLASS
Carbon, graphite bricks and tiles are used
for lining process vessels and are suitable
for applications involving severe thermal
shock.
Tube and shell heat exchangers, small
distillation column, reactors, valves,
pumps and other item are available in
impregnated graphite