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PHYSICAL

TREATMENT
GROUP 4
SITI NUR TAQINAH BT. MURSIDI
(2011369127)
HANISAH BT SARKAWI (2011361979)
IHSAN SABRI B. ROSLI (2010562001)

PHYSICAL TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT:

Cyclone

INTRODUCTION:

Cyclone Separator
Synonyms: substance cyclone,
vortex separation and multi
cyclone

Centrifugal separator which utilize


centrifugal force to remove dust

No moving parts within

CHARACTERISTIC
Characteristic

Details

Air Flow

Handle air flow from less than 0.5

Temperature

Operate at high temperature,

Pollutant Loading

Waste gas pollutant loadings are

to more than 12 sm3/sec


540C
from range 2.3 to 230 g/m3

Reverse Flow Cyclone

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
CYCLONE
Entering air brought tangentially
into the cylindrical body.
A strong vortex or also known vortex
movement is created inside the
cyclone
This vortex from outside stream flow
spirally downward while the outside
flow spirally upward.
The particle present inside the air
flow is swung to the outside wall and
fall downward.

ADVANTAGES
Simple Construction
No Moving Components
Low Maintenance
Low Investment &
Functioning Cost
Saves Space

DISADVANTAGES
Low Output for Low
Particle Diameter

Low Effieciency

Unable to Handle
Stick Material

High Operating Cost

PHYSICAL TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT:

Bag House

WHAT IS BAGHOUSE?

Also known as fabric filter


an air pollution control device
use a fabric filter to remove dust from a
continuous or intermittent incoming gas stream.
consists of one or more isolated compartments
containing rows of fabric bags in the form of
round, flat, or shaped tubes, or pleated
cartridges.

collect particles with sizes ranging from


submicron to several hundred microns in
diameter
Up to 99 percent efficiency
can be found in virtually every industry:
Foundry

and steel operations


Pharmaceutical producers
Food manufacturers
Chemical producers

HOW BAGHOUSE WORK?

SPECIAL DESIGN & CHARACTERISTICS

Abrasives- can withstand and capture abrasive


particles.
Acid gases- baghouse fabrics are coated with powdered
lime or similar substance to absorb acid gas.
Coolant and oil mists- can filter coolant smoke and
mist from metal finishing and forming processes, and
machiningoil mists.
Explosive media- can filter explosive dusts, mists,
and/or fumes.
Fine powders- can filter fine powders such as carbon
black, talc, pigments, oxides, and plastic compounding
dusts.

Mercury- baghouse fabrics are coated with powdered


activated carbon to absorb mercury or other difficult to
capture air pollutants.
Toxic media- can filter toxic materials such as dust,
mist, fume, or smoke from the air.
Welding fumes- unit is designed specifically for the
collection of welding fumes or dust; these may include
flux recovery systems

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


Advantages

Disadvantages

Versatile and flexible for many


applications.

Limited by high temperatures and


corrosive chemicals.

Extremely high efficiencies


especially for small particles.

Not well suited for very high dust


loads.

Cost-effective when properly


designed and maintained.

Requires a lot of maintenance.

Modular design for convenient


assembly.

Large floor areas required

Can collect other pollutants with


certain fabric coating additions.

Potential for fire or explosion.

MECHANICAL SHAKER BAGHOUSE


Dirty gas enters the bottom of the baghouse and
passes through the filter
dust collects on the inside surface of the bags
Vibration produced by a motor-driven shaft creates
waves in the bags to shake off the dust cake
popular in the minerals processing industry

Advantages

Disadvantages

high collection efficiency of dust

Cannot be used in high temperatures

use strong woven bags, which can


withstand intensified cleaning cycle to
reduce residual dust buildup

Require large amounts of space

Simple to operate

Need large numbers of filter bags


Consist of many moving parts and
require frequent maintenance

PULSE JET BAGHOUSE


In reverse-pulse-jet baghouses, individual bags are
supported by a metal cage (filter cage), which is fastened
onto a cell plate at the top of the baghouse.
Dirty gas enters from the bottom of the baghouse and flows
from outside to inside the bags.
Bags are cleaned by a short burst of compressed air
injected through a common manifold over a row of bags.

Advantages
high collection efficiency of dust

Disadvantages
Require use of dry compressed air

High efficiency and minimal residual May not be used readily in high
dust buildup due to aggressive
temperatures unless special fabrics
cleaning action
are used
Can clean continuously

Have small size and fewer bags


low pressure drop

Cannot be used if high moisture


content or humidity levels are
present in the exhaust gases

REVERSE AIR BAGHOUSE


Dirty gas flow normally enters the baghouse and passes
through the bag from the inside, and the dust collects on the
inside of the bags
Before a cleaning cycle begins, filtration is stopped in the
compartment to be cleaned.
Bags are cleaned by injecting clean air into the dust collector
in a reverse direction, which pressurizes the compartment.
The pressure makes the bags collapse partially, causing the
dust cake to crack and fall into the hopper below.
At the end of the cleaning cycle, reverse airflow is
discontinued, and the compartment is returned to the main
stream.

Advantages

Disadvantages

high collection efficiency of dust

Require frequent cleaning because of


gentle cleaning action

preferred for high temperatures due


to gentle cleaning action

Cleaning air must be filtered

low pressure drop

PHYSICAL TREATMENT
EQUIPMENT:

Scrubber

SCRUBBER
Device that remove particulate matter by
contacting the dirty gas stream with liquid drops
Two types of scrubber
Wet scrubber
Dry scrubber

FOUR STEP MECHANISM

WET SCRUBBER
Effective air pollution control devices that use liquid to
remove particles or gases from industrial exhaust
streams
Generally classified by the method that is used to
induce contact between the liquid and the particle
Types
Spray chambers
Cyclone chambers
Packed bed
Orifice scrubber
Impingement scrubber
Venturi scrubber

WET SCRUBBER

SPRAY
TOWER
Particulate gas
contact with liquid
droplets generated by
spray nozzles
Slurry drain from the
bottom of the tower
Droplet size is
controlled to
maximize the
scrubber efficiency

CYCLONIC SPRAY CHAMBERS


Similar to spray tower
produce cyclonic
motion inside the
chamber
Contributes;

Higher gas velocities


More effective particle
and droplet separation
Higher collection
efficiency

PACKED-BED SCRUBBER
Containing layers of
variously-shaped packing
material
The gas stream is forced
to pass through the
packing
The liquid on the packing
collects the particulate
and drain at the bottom
of the tower

IMPINGEMENT SCRUBBERS
Vertical chamber with
plates mounted
horizontally inside a
hollow shell
Operate as a counter
current collection
device
Usually designed to
provide operator access
to each tray, making
them relatively easy to
clean and maintain

DRY SCRUBBER
Dry scrubber are used to remove acid
gasesfromcombustionsources.
Types;
Spray dryer absorption

Use droplets of thick liquid to absorb pollutants


packed tower where gas contact with atomized alkaline slurry

Dry injection adsorption

Usually operate with a bag house


Inject an alkaline material to neutralize the acidic gaseous

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A SPRAY DRYER ABSORPTION SYSTEM


REFERENCE: YOSEMITE.EPA.GOV

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A SPRAY DRYER ABSORPTION SYSTEM


REFERENCE: YOSEMITE.EPA.GOV

VIDEO

Packed bed scrubber