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PanAm International Flight Academy, Inc.

2001

Avionics
Flight and Navigation Instruments

Flight Instrumentation is pretty standard

Gyro Horizon - called ADI


Pitch
5 marks
20 numbers
if horizon not in view,
will show arrows

Roll
10 marks to 30
45 dot
60 mark

Airplane
red dot nose
yellow angle wings

Glide Slope Pointer


2-dots high or low

Localizer indication
VERY sensitive
FD

Pitch Attitude Trim Knob


non functional
some pilots use for
confirmation of
clearance
horiz=position and
hold
up=cleared for
takeoff
horiz=cleared for
approach
down=cleared to
land

FD

Warning Flags
G
attitude information is invalid

FD
Flight Director invalid

FD

Slip Ball
accurate but difficult
to see
compare with large
needle/ball

Compass System

RMI

HSI

Flux Valves
wing tips
basic compass

DG - Directional
Gyro
stabilization unit

Left Flux Valve


CA - H S I
FO - RMI
FDR
Right Flux Valve
FO - H S I
CA - RMI

Soeach pilot has two independent sources of Heading

Compass Control Panel


Allows corrective
movement of heading
allows fast erect

COMP panel (one for each pilot)


DG
disables DGallows compass to be free
activates DEC /INC switch to move heading

MAG
stabilizes mag heading

Compass Selector
BOTH 1
NORM
BOTH 2

Heading Bug
Captain and FO bug separate
controlled by knob
Captains bug is input to FD
no digital readout - (eyeball)

Glide Slope Indicator


repeater of one on ADI

CDI - (Compass Deviation Indicator)


controlled by knob
no digital readout - (eyeball)
TO / FROM indicator
2 dot deviation each side
VOR
LOC

Normally
CA #1 radio
feeds CA CDI
FO #2 radio
feeds FO CDI

H S I Select switch
NAV 1 LEFT(Captain)
NAV 2 RIGHT (FO)
NAV 1 RIGHT (FO)
NAV 2 LEFT (Captain)

H S I Indicator light
Captain Green (normal) for NAV 1
switch in LEFT position

NAV 1

H S I Indicator light
Captain Amber (abnormal) for NAV 2
switch in RIGHT position

NAV 2

FO Indicator light
NAV 2 GREEN (normal) with switch in LEFT position
NAV 1 AMBER (abnormal) with switch in RIGHT position

NAV 1
NAV 2

Failure flags
NAV
navigation reference is invalid

HDG
heading reference is invalid
HDG

VERT

A
V

glide slope reference is invalid


note: only active with Localizer
frequency set into Nav Receiver

VE
RT

RMI (Radio Magnetic Indicator)


compass indication tied to opposite H S I
#1 Needle
skinny
Captains radio indication

#2 Needle
double needle
FO radio indication

VOR/ADF changeover
Push - Push
note indications

Warning Flag
power failure to compass
card
fixed card compass
needles still point, but
relative bearing

Airspeed Indicator
Red line
Vmc-air with Flaps 10

Blue line
single engine best Rate of
Climb at max take off
weight with Flaps UP

White Arc
Flap35 extend speed
150 kts max airspeed
89 kts for Vmc-gnd

Barber Pole
250 kts Vmo
reduces automatically
210 kts @ 25,000 feet

Warning Flag
Electrical power lost
airspeed indication still OK
gear warning and overspeed
warning inoperative

Normally 3 bugs available


calculated from performance
data

Altimeter
Drum for thousands
Pointer for hundreds
Altimeter set
knob and window
CODE

Warning Flag
ATC encoder off
normally, ATC
gets altitude info
from Captain.
may have
transfer switch

OFF

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)


TCAS display, if
installed

Standby Gyro
center panel
Essential DC (no independent power source)

Standby Gyro
basic instrument
5 pitch marks
10 numbers
10 roll marks
Fast Erect knob
Warning Flag

Standby Compass

Standby Compass

Basic Flight Instruments.


Questions ?

Flight Director
The pilots best friend or worst enemy !!

Two kinds
V-bars
Cross-hairs
Same information

Cross-Hair
horizontal bar=pitch guidance

Cross-Hair
vertical bar=roll guidance

The Pilots job is to keep the red ball airplane at the intersection
of the crosshairs

Flight Director programmed from Control Panel just below CAP


push buttons

Pitch Modes - right side

Roll Modes - left side

Pitch can be used without Roll

But Roll can not be used without Pitch

Pitch Modes Available


ALT
VS (vertical speed)
IAS (indicated airspeed)
ALT

SBY (standby) is the OFF button

ALTSEL is not operable on


aircraft without an autopilot

VS

IAS

SBY

Altitude Hold ( ALT)


Provides attitude necessary to hold
altitude at time of selection
independent of power setting
independent of airspeed

ALT

Vertical Speed ( VS)


Provides attitude necessary to hold
vertical speed at time of selection
independent of power setting
independent of airspeed
independent of altitude

VS

Indicated AirSpeed ( IAS)


Provides attitude necessary to hold
indicated airspeed at time of selection
independent of power setting
independent of altitude

IAS

Roll Modes available


HDG
NAV
APR
HDG

ARM CAP ARM CAP ARM CAP

ARM CAP

BC
VOR APR

Two concepts before continuing with the Roll Mode


1. Roll Command Bar is an Angle of Bank indicator
NOT a course indicator
provides a command to an
angle of bank necessary to
achieve program desired
centered roll command bar
indicates aircraft is at desired
angle of bank
do not level wings
hold what you have

2. ARM versus CAPTURE


ARM=FD is armed to seek a radio signal
CAPTURE = FD has acquired that radio signal and will provide a roll
command to capture that signal and track that signal

ARM CAP

Heading ( HDG)
Provides an angle of bank necessary to
seek and hold heading as indicated by
heading bug on Captains H S I.

HDG

NAVIGATE ( NAV)
Provides angle of bank
necessary to seek, capture, and
track a course or localizer as
selected on the Captains CDI
ARM=seeking
CAP=identified and roll
command bar activated
If signal not immediately
acquired, HDG will
automatically be activated until
signal is identified

ARM CAP

APPROACH ( APR)
Actually a pitch mode, used with an ILS
Provides pitch attitude necessary to seek
and hold glide slope on an ILS approach
LOC frequency must be tuned
will automatically arm NAV
will arm HDG if NAV not CAP

ARM CAP

Back Course ( BC)


Provides angle of bank necessary to hold
back course as selected on Captain CDI
front course set in
prevents reverse sensing

ARM CAP

VOR APPROACH ( VOR)


Provides angle of bank necessary to seek
and track VOR course as set on the
Captains CDI
same as NAV, but more sensitive

ARM CAP

GO AROUND mode
Activated by button on left
Power Lever
Provides
10 nose up pitch command
wings level roll command

Mode Indicator
Repeats what is selected on the FD panel
Glareshield panel is what you ordered
Mode Indicator is what you have

FO may or may not have a panel

NOTE:
not in the same
order as the
glareshield lights

TCS

B. C. ARM
B. C. CAP

HDG
ALT CAP

ALT ARM

GA

NAV ARM

APR ARM

NAV CAP

APR CAP

VOR APR
ARMED
VOR APR
CAP

IAS
V.S.

TCS - Touch Control Steering


allows adjustment of pitch command bar
inboard side of outboard yoke

Testing the Flight Director Panel

We have a short video on the Flight Director


starring:
Harrison Ford
and
Julia Roberts

Comm and Nav

sometimes

Comm Radios

Nav Radios

ADF and/or Transponder

Avionics Master
Main
Essential

VHF Comm Radios


ON / OFF switch

Dual VHF comm


2 frequencies - Active and Standby

Transfer switch
UP to transfer
DOWN to select Memory frequency (memory holds 6 pre-set frequencies)

Use STO button to store frequency into MEMORY


Press once to display available channel
tune frequency
press second time to store frequency

Frequency tuner
outer and inner dial

TEST button
all eights, then dashes on top and 00 on bottom

Light Sensor
Automatically controls background lighting

LED Displays
MEM= a memory preset freq is in lower window
RMT= remote tuning of the radio instead of control head
TX = radio is in transmit mode
ACT= freq is being changed or actual freq is different from one shown

Normal use:
left radios are ATC
right radios are company, ATIS, other

Headset plug in point


Note the oxygen mask plug in point.
Oxygen mask has built in radio transmitter (will cover later)

BOOM / MASK switch must be in BOOM for headset to transmit

Some aircraft have capacity for a hand mike in addition to Boom mike

Radios are controlled by a CCS panel on each pilot side panel

CCS panel (communications control system)

Transmit
rotary switch

Receive
levers

Volume control -independent of vol control on radio control head


radio
inter-comm

There is also a speaker in the overhead

Emergency Switch
NORMAL - allows CCS to control radios
EMERGENCY - bypasses CCS and connects directly to radio

Captains Yoke Switch

FOs Yoke Switch

Push forward to transmit what is


on Rotary Transmit of CCS
spring loaded to center OFF

Pull back to have a hot mike


between pilots
will stay in position

VHF Navigation
basically the same functions as the COMM receiver heads

ON / OFF switch
HLD - DME hold position
will hold the ACTIVE freq DME when it is switched to STBY
do NOT recommend use with remote DME indicator

LED display has DME HLD position

memory pre-sets hold 4 frequencies (Comm held 6)

DME indicator
Each pilot has separate, independent control head

PWR = On/ Off switch

SEL
push to change to 3 possible indications in right window

Station Ident
4 letter identifier
dashes

Minutes to the Station

Ground Speed
Kts TO the station

CH (channel)
push to change for choice of three DME stations

Channel #1 DME

Channel #2 DME

Channel #3 DME

HLD - LED display - Nav control head is in DME Hold position


Light Sensor - automatically controls intensity of display

Marker Beacons
outboard of flight instruments on both pilots panels

OUTER
MIDDLE
AIRWAYS

Light Intensity Control


DIM / BRIGHT
light intensity

HI / LOW
signal intensity

Volume Control

Altitude Alert
center instrument panel
On / Off
(also function switch)
RNG
set tones
SEL
select altitude
BAR
altimeter
ALT
pressure alt

Set Switch
two speeds

750 above

250 ft

alert light flashes + tone


Selected Altitude

250 ft

alert light extinguishes


750 ft below

alert light illuminates


+ tone

Transponder
standard
center
instrument panel

Cockpit Voice Recorder


30 minute tape
Essential DC power (no ON/OFF switch)

Inputs
VHF #1
VHF #2
intercomm
area mic

TEST button
associated meter will deflect for each input channel (4)
HEADSET input
plug in headset
hear area mic with time delay

ERASE button
parking brake ON
Squat Switch made

CVR location

Also back there is the FDR


(Flight Data Recorder)

Flight Data Recorder


POWER
115 AC main and 28 DC main
engines operating
INPUTS
vertical accelerometer
RMI heading
CCS input for radio events
pitot and static input for airspeed and altitude

FDR fail annunciator

FDR
FDR
FAIL
FAIL

FDR
25 hours of tape
will write-over after that
will withstand 9 Gs
fire and impact resistant

ELT is also back here

Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)


internal batter power - 52 hours duration
automatically activated by +5 Gs
121.5 and 243
antenna on left rear tail

ELT control switch


ON / TEST
ARM

Radio Altimeter
Indicator - AGL
Set knob
controls indicator window

DH light
illuminates when
actual altitude is below
set altitude

Radio Altimeter TEST


Zero altitude set in
window
push and hold set button
indicator to 40 feet
release set button
set in altitude above 40 ft.
push set button and
observe DH light

GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning System)


Modes
1. Excessive rate of
descent with respect to
terrain
2. Excessive closure rate
with terrain
3. Loss of altitude after
take off or go-around
4. Proximity to ground not
in landing configuration
5. Below glide slope
6. Below radio altitude
decision height

Warnings (in order of priority)


WHOOP, WHOOP, PULL UP
TERRAIN
TOO LOW TERRAIN
TOO LOW GEAR
TOO LOW FLAPS
MINIMUMS
SINK RATE
DONT SINK
GLIDESLOPE

Mode 1
aircraft is closing with ground
SINK RATE + red lightTHEN WHOOP, WHOOP, PULL UP

Mode 2
ground and aircraft closing
TERRAIN, TERRAIN + red light then WHOOP, WHOOP

Mode 3
altitude loss after take off or go-around
DONT SINK, DONT SINK
effective only below 700 feet AGL

Mode 4
aircraft close to ground but not configured for landing

too low, gear

too low, terrain

too low, flaps

Mode 5
descent below glide slope on an ILS approach
aural warning and visual below G/S warning
GLIDE SLOPE

GLIDE SLOPE

2 dots low

1.3 dots low

Mode 6
descent below set altitude
minimums, minimums

300 feet

Warning Lights
red GPWS -associated with Whoop, Whoop, PULL UP
amber Below G/S
red GPWS INOP
red G/S CANCLD
amber FLAP ORIDE

CLOCK

Outside Air Temp

Questions ?