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You are on page 1of 47

Lecture 12

Power Flow

Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering

Announcements

Homework

5 is due now

Homework 6 is 2.38, 6.8, 6.23, 6.28; you should do it

before the exam but need not turn it in.

First exam is 10/9 in class; closed book, closed notes, one

note sheet and calculators allowed

Abbott power plant and substation field trip, Tuesday

10/14 starting at 12:30pm. Well meet at corner of Gregory

and Oak streets.

Be reading Chapter 6; exam covers up through Section

6.4; we do not explicitly cover 6.1.

Newton-Raphson Algorithm

The

the Newton-Raphson algorithm

Key idea behind Newton-Raphson is to use

sequential linearization

General form of problem: Find an x such that

f ( x ) 0

1. For each guess of x , x

(v)

, define

x ( v ) x - x ( v )

2. Represent f ( x ) by a Taylor series about f ( x )

(v)

df

(

x

) (v)

(v)

f ( x ) f ( x )

x

dx

2

1 d f (x

2 dx 2

(v)

(v) 2

3. Approximate f ( x ) by neglecting all terms

except the first two

(v )

df

(

x

) (v)

(v )

f ( x ) 0 f ( x )

x

dx

(v)

df ( x )

(v)

x

f (x )

dx

(v )

( v 1)

(v)

(v)

5

Newton-Raphson Example

Use Newton-Raphson to solve f ( x) x 2 - 2 0

The equation we must iteratively solve is

x

(v )

(v )

( v 1)

( v 1)

(v)

df ( x )

(v)

f

(

x

)

dx

(v) 2

(( x ) - 2)

( v )

2x

x

(v)

(v)

(v)

1

(v ) 2

2 x (v ) (( x ) - 2)

6

x

( v 1)

(v)

1

(v) 2

((

x

) - 2)

2 x (v )

v

0

1

x(v )

1

1.5

f ( x(v) )

1

0.25

x ( v )

0.5

0.08333

1.41667

6.953 103

2.454 103

1.41422

6.024 106

7

Function is f(x) = x2 - 2 = 0.

Solutions are points where

f(x) intersects f(x) = 0 axis

At each

iteration the

N-R method

uses a linear

approximation

to determine

the next value

for x

8

Newton-Raphson Comments

When

close to the solution the error decreases quite quickly -method has quadratic convergence

f(x(v)) is known as the mismatch, which we would like to drive to

zero

Stopping criteria is when f(x(v)) <

Results are dependent upon the initial guess. What if we had

guessed x(0) = 0, or x (0) = -1?

A solutions region of attraction (ROA) is the set of initial guesses

that converge to the particular solution. The ROA is often hard to

determine

Multi-Variable Newton-Raphson

Next we generalize to the case where x is an ndimension vector, and f (x) is an n-dimension function

x1

x

2

x

M

x

n

f1 ( x)

f 2 ( x)

f n ( x)

f (x)

x x x

10

The Taylor series expansion is written for each fi (x)

f1 (x)

f1 ( x)

f1 (x ) f1 ( x)

x1

x2 K

x1

x2

f1 (x)

xn higher order terms

xn

M

f n (x)

f n (x)

f n (x ) f n (x)

x1

x2 K

x1

x2

f n (x)

xn higher order terms

xn

11

This can be written more compactly in matrix form

f1 (x)

x

1

f1 (x)

f 2 (x)

f (x)

2

f (x )

x1

M

M

f ( x )

n

f (x)

n

x1

f1 (x)

L

x2

f 2 (x)

L

x2

O

O

f n (x)

L

x2

f1 (x)

xn

f 2 (x)

xn

M

f n (x)

xn

x1

x

2

M

x

n

12

Jacobian Matrix

The n by n matrix of partial derivatives is known

as the Jacobian matrix, J (x)

f1 (x)

x

1

f1 (x)

L

x2

f 2 (x)

J (x) x1

f (x)

n

x1

f 2 (x)

L

x2

O

O

f n (x)

L

x2

f1 (x)

xn

f 2 (x)

xn

M

f n (x)

xn

13

Derivation of N-R method is similar to the scalar case

f (x ) f (x) J (x) x higher order terms

f (x ) 0 f (x) J ( x)x

x

J ( x) f ( x)

x( v 1) x( v ) x( v )

x( v 1) x( v ) J (x( v ) ) 1 f (x( v ) )

Iterate until f (x(v ) )

14

Multi-Variable Example

x1

Solve for x = such that f ( x) 0 where

x 2

f1 (x) 2 x12 x22 8 0

f 2 (x) x12 x22 x1 x2 4 0

First symbolically determine the Jacobian

J (x) =

f1 (x)

x

1

f 2 (x)

x1

f1 (x)

x2

f 2 ( x)

x2

15

4 x1

J (x) =

2 x1 x2

Then

4 x1

x1

x 2 x x

2

1

2

Arbitrarily guess x

x

(1)

(0)

2 x2

x1 2 x2

2 x2

x1 2 x2

f 1 ( x)

f 2 (x)

1

1

1

1 4 2 5

1 3

1

3

2.1

1.3

16

8.40 2.60

1.8284

2.51

x

5.50 0.50

1.45 1.2122

(2)

2.1

1.3

specified tolerance

f (x

(2)

0.1556

0.0900

continue iterating.

17

18

19

Black lines are DC, blue lines are 765kV, red are 500 kV

Source: Midwest ISO MTEP08 Report

20

21

22

Lots of Support and Opposition

23

We first need to rewrite complex power equations

as equations with real coefficients

Si

*

Vi I i

Vi

YikVk

Vi

k 1

k 1

* *

YikVk

Vi @ Vi e ji Vi i

ik @ i k

Recall e j cos j sin

24

n

k 1

k 1

Vi Vk

k 1

Pi

Qi

k 1

n

k 1

25

In the Newton-Raphson power flow we use Newton's

method to determine the voltage magnitude and angle

at each bus in the power system.

We need to solve the power balance equations

Pi

Qi

Vi

Vi

k 1

n

k 1

26

Assume the slack bus is the first bus (with a fixed

voltage angle/magnitude). We then need to determine

the voltage angle/magnitude at the other buses.

2

M

n

x

V 2

V

n

P2 (x) PG 2 PD 2

f (x)

Q (x) QG 2 QD 2

2

27

The power flow is solved using the same procedure

discussed last time:

Set v 0; make an initial guess of x, x( v )

While f (x(v ) ) Do

( v 1)

(v)

x

x J (x

v

v 1

End While

( v ) 1

) f (x

(v)

28

The most difficult part of the algorithm is determining

and inverting the n by n Jacobian matrix, J (x)

f1 (x)

x

1

f1 (x)

L

x2

f1 (x)

xn

f 2 (x)

J (x) x1

f (x)

n

x1

f 2 (x)

L

x2

f 2 (x)

xn

M

f n (x)

xn

O

O

f n (x)

L

x2

29

Jacobian elements are calculated by differentiating

each function, fi ( x), with respect to each variable.

For example, if fi (x) is the bus i real power equation

fi ( x)

fi ( x)

Vi

Vi

k 1

n

k 1

k i

fi ( x)

Vi V j (Gik sin ik Bik cos ik ) ( j i )

j

30

For the two bus power system shown below, use the

Newton-Raphson power flow to determine the

voltage magnitude and angle at bus two. Assume

that bus one is the slack and SBase =100MVA.

Line Z = 0.1j

One

1.000 pu

Two

0 MW

0 MVR

2

x

V2

Ybus

1.000 pu

200 MW

100 MVR

j10 j10

j

10

j

10

31

General power balance equations

Pi

Qi

k 1

n

k 1

V2 V1 (10sin 2 ) 2.0 0

2

32

P2 (x) V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0 0

2

Now calculate the power flow Jacobian

P2 (x)

2

J ( x)

Q 2 (x)

2

P2 (x)

V 2

Q 2 ( x)

V 2

10 V2 cos 2

10 V2 sin 2

10sin 2

10 cos 2 20 V2

33

Set v 0, guess x

(0)

0

1

Calculate

f(x

(0)

V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0

2.0

1.0

10sin 2

10 V2 cos 2

10 0

(0)

J (x )

10

V

sin

10

cos

20

V

0

10

2

2

2

2

Solve x

(1)

0 10 0 2.0

1.0

1

0

10

0.2

0.9

34

0.9 (10sin( 0.2)) 2.0

(1)

0.212

2

0.279

0.9(10cos( 0.2)) 0.9 10 1.0

8.82 1.986

1.788 8.199

f(x )

J (x(1) )

x

(2)

f(x

(2)

0.2

0.9

8.82 1.986

0.212

1.788 8.199

0.279

0.0145

0.236

(3)

x

0.0190

0.8554

0.0000906

f(x )

0.0001175

(3)

Done!

0.233

0.8586

V2 0.8554 13.52

35

Once the voltage angle and magnitude at bus 2 are

known we can calculate all the other system values,

such as the line flows and the generator reactive

power output

200.0 MW

168.3 MVR

One

-200.0 MW

-100.0 MVR

Line Z = 0.1j

1.000 pu

200.0 MW

168.3 MVR

Two

200 MW

100 MVR

36

This case actually has two solutions! The second

"low voltage" is found by using a low initial guess.

Set v 0, guess x

(0)

0.25

Calculate

f(x

(0)

J (x

V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0

(0)

0.875

10 V2 cos 2

10sin 2

2.5 0

10 V2 sin 2 10 cos 2 20 V2

0

37

1

0 2.5 0

2

Solve x

0 5

0.875

0.25

1.42

1.462

(2)

(2)

(3)

f (x )

x

x

0.534

0.2336

(1)

0.8

0.075

0.921

0.220

200.0 MW

831.7 MVR

One

-200.0 MW

-100.0 MVR

Line Z = 0.1j

1.000 pu

200.0 MW

831.7 MVR

Two

200 MW

100 MVR

38

Slide shows the region of convergence for different initial

guesses of bus 2 angle (x-axis) and magnitude (y-axis)

Red region

converges

to the high

voltage

solution,

while the

yellow region

converges

to the low

voltage

solution

39

PV Buses

Since

there is no need to explicitly include these voltages

in x or write the reactive power balance equations

maintain the fixed terminal voltage (within limits)

optionally these variations/equations can be included by

just writing the explicit voltage constraint for the

generator bus

|Vi | Vi setpoint = 0

40

For this three bus case we have

2

x 3

V2

P2 (x) PG 2 PD 2

f (x) P3 (x) PG 3 PD3 0

Q2 (x) QD 2

Line Z = 0.1j

0.941 pu

One

170.0 MW

68.2 MVR

1.000 pu

Line Z = 0.1j

Three

Two

Line Z = 0.1j

-7.469 Deg

200 MW

100 MVR

1.000 pu

30 MW

63 MVR

41

So far we've assumed that the load is independent of

the bus voltage (i.e., constant power). However, the

power flow can be easily extended to include voltage

depedence with both the real and reactive load. This

is done by making PDi and Q Di a function of Vi :

n

Vi

Vi

k 1

n

k 1

42

In previous two bus example now assume the load is

constant impedance, so

P2 (x) V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0 V2

Now calculate the power flow Jacobian

10 V2 cos 2

J ( x)

10 V2 sin 2

10sin 2 4.0 V2

10 cos 2 20 V2 2.0 V2

43

Again set v 0, guess x

(0)

0

1

Calculate

f(x

(0)

V2 (10sin 2 ) 2.0 V2

2

10 4

(0)

J (x )

0

12

Solve x

(1)

0 10 4

12

1

0

2.0

1.0

2.0

1.0

0.1667

0.9167

44

With constant impedance load the MW/Mvar load at

bus 2 varies with the square of the bus 2 voltage

magnitude. This if the voltage level is less than 1.0,

the load is lower than 200/100 MW/Mvar

160.0 MW

120.0 MVR

One

-160.0 MW

-80.0 MVR

Line Z = 0.1j

1.000 pu

160.0 MW

120.0 MVR

Two

0.894 pu

-10.304 Deg

160 MW

80 MVR

45

The

Jacobian matrix

amount of computation increases with the cube of the size

size

this amount of computation can be decreased substantially

by recognizing that since the Ybus is a sparse matrix, the

Jacobian is also a sparse matrix

using sparse matrix methods results in a computational

order of about n1.5.

this is a substantial savings when solving systems with tens

of thousands of buses

46

Advantages

large region of convergence

Disadvantages

more complicated to code, particularly when implementing

sparse matrix algorithms

Newton-Raphson

analysis

47

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