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Communication System

Design

Communication
Communication
It is the process of conveying information from one place to another.
Telecommunication
It is a long distance communication that takes place between a transmitter
and a receiver that are too far apart to communicate effectively using only
sound wave
Derive from the Greek word tele meaning afar or distant

Telephone

Comes from the Greek words tele afar and phone sound or voiced
sound

Telephone system were originally developed for conveying human


speech information.

Telephone system is also used to transfer data within the same


frequency band of voice using modems.

Telephone system began in 1876 when Alexander Graham Bell and


Thomas A. Watson developed the first telephone system.

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) the simplest and most straight
forward form of telephone service.

Telephone

Butterstamp telephone-the first telephone set that combined transmitter


and receiver into a single handheld unit and was introduced in 1878.

Bell System 500-type telephone introduce by Western Electric Company


in 1951 used by the industry in four decades (rotary type telephone)

Bell System 250-type telephone-replacement for 500-type telephone

2500-Type telephone-modern type telephone with touch tone dialling


mechanism

Telephone
The quality of transmission over a telephone connection depends on;

Received volume

Relative frequency response of the telephone circuit

Degree of interference.

The ratio of the acoustic pressure at the transmitter input to the


corresponding pressure at the receiver depends on:

The translation of acoustic pressure into electrical signal

The losses of the two customer local loops, the central telephone office,
equipment and the cables between central telephone offices.

The translation of the electrical signal at the receiving telephone set to


acoustic pressure at the speaker output

Function of Telephone Set


1. Notify the subscriber when there is an incoming call with an audible signal
2. Provide signal to the telephone network verifying when the incoming call has been
acknowledge and answer.
3. Convert speech energy into electrical energy in the transmitter and vice versa in the
receiver.
4. Incorporate some method of inputting and sending destination telephone numbers
from the telephone set to the central office switch over the local loop.
5. Regulate the amplitude of the speech signal the calling person outputs onto the
telephone line.
6. Incorporate some means of notifying the telephone office when a subscriber wishes
to place an outgoing call.
7. Ensure that a small amount of the transmit signal is fed back to the speaker,
enabling talkers to hear themselves speaking.
8. Provide open circuit to the loop when the telephone is not in use and closed circuit to
the local loop when the telephone is in used.
9. Provide a means of transmitting and receiving call progress signal between the
central office switch and the subscriber.

Central Office

Central
Office
Switching
machine

-48 Vdc (ring)

Telephone Set
2-Wire Local Subscriber Loop

Ground (tip)

Switch hook
microphone

Cont.
Why DC?

To prevent power supply hum

To allow service to continue in the event off a power interruption

People where afraid of AC

Why -48 Vdc?

To minimized electrolytic corrosion on the local loop wire

It is used for supervisory signalling

Telephone Set

Ringer Circuit is placed directly across the tip and ring of the local loop. Its
purpose is to alert the destination party of incoming calls.

On/off hook circuit (switch hook) is nothing more than a simple single-throw,
double-pole SPDT switch places across the tip and ring.

Equalizer circuit are combination of passive components that are used to


regulate the amplitude and frequency response of the voice signal.

Speaker is the receiver for the telephone.

Microphone is the transmitter for the telephone.

Hybrid network (hybrid coil or duplex coil) is a special balanced transformer


used to convert a two-wire circuit into a four-wire circuit and vice versa, thus
enabling a full duplex operation over a two-wire circuit.

Dialling circuit enables the subscriber to output signal representing digits.


And this enables the caller to enter the destination telephone number.

Basic Telephone Call Procedure

1. Calling stations goes off hook.

2. After detecting a dc current flow on the loop, the switching machines


returns an audible dial tone to the calling station, acknowledging that
the call has access to the switching machine.
3. The caller dials the destination telephone number.
4. When the switching machine detects the first dialled number, it removes
the dial tone from the loop.
5. The switch interprets the telephone number and then locates the local
loop for the destination telephone number.
6. Before ringing the destination telephone, the switching machine tests
the destination loop for dc current to see if it is idle or in use.
7.a if the destination is off hook, the switching machine sends a station
busy signal back to the calling station.
7.b if the destination is on hook, the switching machines sends a ringing
signal to the destination and at the same time sends a ring back signal to
the calling stations to give the caller some assurance that something is
happening.

Cont.
8. When the destination answer the telephone, it completes the loop,
causing dc current to flow.
9. The switch recognizes the dc current as the station answering the
telephone, at this time, the switch removes the ringing and ring back
signals and completes the path through the switch, allowing the calling and
called parties to begin their conversation.
10. When either end goes on hook, the switching machines detects an open
circuit on that loop and then drops the connections through the switch.