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Equations.

By.harsh kuchiya

9th A

JPV DAV SCHOOL

Measuring Motion

Speed

Average Speed = distance covered / time taken

v = d/t

metric unit of speed: m/s

English unit of speed: ft/s

Constant speed:

moving equal distances in equal time periods

an object covering 5 feet each second has a constant

speed of 5ft/s

If speed changes:

Average speed: average over all speeds

Instantaneous speed: speed at any given instant

Constant speed:

this car is moving in a straight line

covering a distance of 1 mi each minute.

The car, therefore, has a constant speed

of 60 mi per each 60 min, or 60 mi/hr.

Speed is the slope of the straight line graph of

distance (on the y-axis) versus time (on the x-

axis)

Velocity

shows how fast and in what

direction an object moves

Velocity: speed + direction of

motion

it is a vector quantity

vector: a quantity that has both

magnitude (size) and direction

ex.: velocity, acceleration, force, etc.

scalar: a quantity without direction

(has only magnitude)

ex.: speed, time, distance, volume,

surface area, etc.

Velocity is a vector that we can represent

graphically with arrows. Here are three different

velocities represented by three different arrows.

The length of each arrow is proportional to the

speed and the arrowhead shows the direction of

travel.

Acceleration

Three ways to change motion:

change speed

change direction

change both speed and direction at the same time

Average acceleration: change in velocity over the

time taken to make the change

v f vi vi = initial velocity

a= t vf = final velocity

t = time

interval

Metric unit for acceleration:

unit of velocity = m/s

= m/s2

unit of time s

English unit for acceleration: ft/s2

30 mi/hr 60

60 mi/hr

mi/hr 60 mi/hr 30 mi/hr

car.

(A) This graph shows how the speed changes per

unit of time while driving at a constant 30 mi/hr

in a straight line. As you can see, the speed is

constant, and for straight-line motion, the

acceleration is 0.

(B) This graph shows the speed increasing to 50

mi/hr when moving in a straight line for 5 s. The

acceleration is the slope of the straight line

graph of speed (on the y-axis) versus time (on

the x-axis).

Forces

contact interactions

interaction at a distance (ex.: gravitational force)

force: a push or a pull

changes the motion of an object

it is a vector: has both magnitude and direction

Graphical Representation of

a Force

represented by an arrow

the tail of a force arrow is placed on the

object that feels the force

the arrowhead points in the direction of

the applied force

the length of the arrow is proportional to

the magnitude of the applied force

object

force

Falling Objects

free fall : due to force of gravity on the

object

the velocity of a falling object does not

depend on its mass

in the absence of air resistance (in a

vacuum) all objects fall at the same

velocity

differences in the velocities of falling objects are

due to air resistance

widespread story,

Galileo dropped two

objects with different

weights from the

Leaning Tower of

Pisa. They were

supposed to have hit

the ground at about

the same time,

discrediting

Aristotle's view that

the speed during the

fall is proportional to

weight.

The actual

leaning tower

of Pisa taken

by my friend

Larry Heath,

Emeritus

Professor of

Technology

on his recent

trip to Rome

Acceleration Due to

Gravity:

g = 9.8 m/s = 32 ft/s

2 2

Free Fall:

at a constant acceleration caused by

the force of gravity

all objects experience this constant

acceleration

this acceleration is 9.8 m/s2 or 32 ft/s2

This means that the velocity of a free

falling object increases at a constant rate

(i.e., by 9.8 m/s every one second, or by

32 ft/s every one second)

The velocity

of a falling

object

increases at

a constant

rate (i.e., by

32 ft/s each

second)

remember the equation for velocity:

v = d/ t

can be rearranged to incorporate acceleration,

distance, and time.

solve for distance:

d = vt

an object in free fall has uniform (constant)

acceleration, so we can calculate the average

velocity as:

v =vi + vf

2

substitute this equation into d = vt to get

d (v

=i + vf) (t)

vi = 0 (for a free falling object)

d (v

= f) (t)

2

use the acceleration equation:

v f - vi

a

= t

but vi = 0 , which gives a = vf /t

Solve for vf :

vf = at

Substituting vf in the equation for d above, we get:

d=

(at) (t)

2

2

covers

increasing

distances

with every

successive

second of

falling. The

distance

covered is

proportional

to the square

of the time

falling

(d t2).

The Equations of Motion

which together are known

as the equations of motion.

When can I use

The Equations of

Motion?

when acceleration is constant

(uniform) and motion is in a straight

line.

Do I have to learn

The Equations of

Motion?

You need to be able to:

select the correct formula

identify symbols and units

carry out calculations to

solve the problems of real-life

motion.

Do I have to learn

The Equations of

Motion?

the equations of motion

To do this fully, you might find

it an interesting challenge

to

equations come from.

The Equations of

Motion

Equation 1

v = u + at

Label the formula using correct symbols and units

Equation 3

Start with Equation 1

v = u + at

Equation 3

and square it

v2 = (u + at) 2

Equation 3

v2 = u + 2uat + a t

2 2 2

v2 = u2 + 2a(ut+ at2)

Equation 2!

Equation 3

v2 = u + 2as

2

Using the

Equations of Motion

when using the equations of

motion?

Using the

Equations of Motion

What do the following quantities

have in common?

velocity displacement

acceleration

Using the Equations of Motion

Step 1: Write down the sign convention.

Step 2: Write down what you know (think

suvat).

s displacement

u initial velocity

v final velocity

a acceleration

t time

eg acceleration due to force of gravity?

Using the Equations of Motion

Step 5: Substitute values then rearrange

formula.

magnitude and direction, and units.

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