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You are on page 1of 37

Mechanics 1

for Edexcel

M1.3 Kinematics

These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.

This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable.

For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.

1 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Contents Motion graphs

Motion graphs

Formulae for constant acceleration

Examination-style questions

Kinematics

It is only concerned with the motion itself, not the forces that

cause this motion.

distance,

displacement,

speed,

velocity,

acceleration.

Distance and displacement

The distance a body has travelled is literally the amount of

ground it has covered during its motion.

Displacement is a vector quantity.

Displacement describes how far a body is from its starting

point and in what direction.

Distance and displacement are measured in metres, m.

Speed, velocity and acceleration

The speed of a body relates to how fast the body is travelling.

Velocity is a vector quantity.

The velocity of a body relates to how fast the body is travelling

and in what direction. It is the rate at which a body changes its

position.

Speed and velocity are measured in metres per second, ms 1.

Acceleration can be a scalar or a vector quantity.

Acceleration is the rate of change of speed or velocity.

It is measured in metres per second per second, ms 2.

Negative acceleration is often called deceleration or

retardation.

Motion graphs

The most common graphs are position-time, speed-time,

velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs.

The gradient of a distance-time graph gives speed.

The gradient of a displacement-time graph gives velocity.

The gradient of a velocity-time graph gives acceleration.

The area under a speed-time graph gives the distance

travelled.

The area under a velocity-time graph gives the change in

displacement.

The area under an acceleration-time graph gives the change

in velocity.

Displacement-time graph

hour after travelling 1000 m metres. The person then returns

to their starting position.

The gradient of this graph

1000 gives velocity.

Displacement (m)

800

For the first part of the journey,

600

1000

400 velocity =

20

200

= 500 metres per minute

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

For the second part of the

Time (mins)

journey the velocity is zero.

1000

For the last part, velocity =

30

= 33.3 metres per minute

7 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Distance-time graph

However, for this graph there is no indication of direction.

The gradient of this graph

2000

gives speed.

Distance (m)

1600

For the first part of the journey,

1200

800

1000

speed =

400 20

0 = 500 metres per minute

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

For the second part of the

Time (mins)

journey the speed is zero.

1000

For the last part, speed =

30

= 33.3 metres per minute

8 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Velocity-time graph

under the graph is given by a

Velocity (ms1)

10

7.5

trapezium with height 12.5

and parallel sides of length

5

130 and 90.

2.5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Time (s) = 1375 m

The gradient of the graph gives acceleration.

The first part of the graph shows an acceleration of 0.42 ms 2,

the second part 0 and the last part a deceleration of 1.25 ms 2.

Acceleration-time graph

Acceleration (ms2)

4

0 Time (s)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14

2

The second part shows a deceleration of 6 ms2.

The last part shows constant velocity.

Acceleration-time graph

velocity.

6

Acceleration (ms2)

4

0 Time (s)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14

2

For the second part, change in velocity = 6 3 = 18 ms1

There is no change in velocity for the last part.

Graphs example 1

on the ground floor.

The lift accelerates with a constant acceleration of 1 ms 2

until it reaches a constant velocity of 4 ms1.

It then travels at this constant velocity for t seconds before

decelerating with a constant deceleration of 2 ms2 until it

reaches the ground floor.

Given that the man has descended 44 m,

a) sketch the velocity-time graph of the lift and use it to find t

b) sketch the acceleration-time graph of the lift.

Graphs solution 1

The distance travelled is given

Velocity (ms1)

4

by the area under the graph, so

( 21 4 4) + (4t ) + ( 21 4 4) = 44

8 + 4t + 4 = 44

4 t 2 4t = 32

Time (s) t = 8 secs

1

Acceleration (ms2)

The acceleration-time

graph for the lift can 0 Time (s)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14

then be sketched as

1

follows:

2

Graphs example 2

The car accelerates from rest to a constant speed of 28 ms 1.

The motorcycle accelerates from rest to a constant speed of

25 ms1 in 10 seconds.

After travelling for 90 seconds the car hits traffic and

decelerates to a constant speed of 22 ms1 in 5 seconds.

The motorcycle is unaffected by the traffic and maintains his

speed.

The motorcycle overtakes the car after they have both

travelled 3700 m.

Draw a speed-time graph and use it to find the time when the

motorcycle overtakes the car and how long the car was initially

accelerating for.

Graphs solution 2

t1

28

Velocity (ms1)

25 Motorbike

22 Car

0 10 90 95

Time (s)

constant speed before it overtakes the car.

The motorbike overtakes the car after travelling 3700 m so,

( 21 10 25) + (t1 25) = 3700

125 + 25t1 = 3700

25t1 = 3575

t1 = 143 seconds

15 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Graphs solution 2

at a constant speed for 143 seconds before overtaking the car.

The motorbike travels for 153 seconds before overtaking the

car.

Let t2 be the time for which the car is initially accelerating.

t2

28

Velocity (ms1)

25 Motorbike

22 Car

0 10 90 95 153

Time (s)

16 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Graphs solution 2

Since the area under the graph for the car between 0 and 153

seconds is equal to 3700 so we can write,

14t2 = 221

Therefore the car was initially accelerating for 15.8 s (to 3 s.f.)

Contents Formulae for constant acceleration

Motion graphs

Formulae for constant acceleration

Examination-style questions

Formulae for constant acceleration

acceleration then there are five equations of motion that can

be used to determine missing quantities.

v = u + at Where

s = displacement in metres

s = 21 (u + v )t u = initial velocity in ms1

s = ut + 21 at 2 v = final velocity in ms1

a = acceleration in ms2

s = vt 21 at 2 t = time taken in seconds

the suvat formulae.

For vertical motion acceleration due to gravity is g, 9.8ms2.

v = u + at

v over time t can be illustrated using a velocity-time graph.

Velocity (ms1) By definition, acceleration is

the rate of change of velocity.

v

The constant acceleration a is

therefore given by the gradient

of the graph. So

u

vu

a=

t

at = v u

t Time (s)

v = u + at

s = (u + v)t

an object with initial velocity u and final velocity v over time t.

Velocity (ms1) This distance is given by the

area under the graph.

v

This area is a trapezium with

parallel sides of length u and v

and width t. So

u

s = 21 (u + v )t

t Time (s)

u + v

s = t

2

21 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

s = ut + at2

= ut + 21 t (v u )

vu

a= so at = v u

t

This gives us distance travelled = ut + 21 t ( at )

So s = ut + 21 at 2

22 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

s = vt at2

= vt 21 t (v u )

We have shown that at = v u

This gives us distance travelled = vt 21 t ( at )

So s = vt 21 at 2

23 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

v2 = u2 + 2as

v = u + at 1

u + v

s= t 2

2

Rearranging equation 1 to make t the subject gives

(v u )

t=

a

Substituting this into equation 2

u + v v u

s =

2 a

2as = (u + v )(v u )

2as = v 2 u 2

So v 2 = u 2 + 2as

24 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Constant acceleration example 1

from a point 15 m above the ground. Find the maximum

height above the ground that the stone reaches and find the

time taken for the stone to reach the ground.

information given in the question is:

u = 10

a = g (Take g to be 9.8)

v = 0, and for t when s = 15.

Constant acceleration solution 1

v2 = u2 + 2as.

02 = 102 + 2(9.8)(s)

0 = 100 19.6s

19.6s = 100

stone reaches is 20.1 m (to 3 s.f.).

Constant acceleration solution 1

s = ut + 21 at2.

15 = 10t + 21 (9.8)t2

15 = 10t 4.9t2

Arranging all the terms on the left gives us the following

quadratic equation

4.9t2 10t 15 = 0

b b 2 4ac

Using gives the solution

2a

t = 3.05 or t = 1.01 (to 3 s.f.)

Therefore the stone reaches the ground after 3.05 s (to 3 s.f.).

Constant acceleration example 2

via point B. It has a constant acceleration of 1 ms 2 and

passes point B after 6 seconds and point C after a further 4

seconds. Its velocity at C is 50 ms1. Calculate the velocity at

A and the distances AB and BC.

A B C

t=6 t = 10

v = 50

a = 1, t = 10 and v = 50. This requires the use of v = u + at.

Constant acceleration example 2

v = u + at

50 = u + (1)(10)

50 = u + 10

u = 40

Therefore the particle passes A with a velocity of 40 ms1.

The next part of the question asks for s when u = 40, a = 1 and

t = 6, requiring the use of s = ut + 21 at2.

s = ut + 21 at2

s = 40(6) + 21 (1)(6)2

s = 240 + 18 = 258

Therefore AB is 258m.

Constant acceleration example 2

and t = 10, again requiring the use of s = ut + 21 at2.

s = ut + 21 at2

s = 40(10) + 21 (1)(10)2

s = 400 + 50 = 450

Constant acceleration example 3

A ball falls off a cliff and lands on the beach 3.2 seconds later.

How high is the cliff?

is

a = 9.8

t = 3.2

u=0

To calculate s requires the use of the formula s = ut + 21 at2.

s = ut + 21 at2

1

s = (0)(3.2) + 2 (9.8)(3.2)2

s = 50.2 (to 3 s.f )

Therefore the height of the cliff is 50.2 m (to 3 s.f.)

31 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Contents Examination-style questions

Motion graphs

Formulae for constant acceleration

Examination-style questions

Examination-style question 1

ms1 from a point 1.2 m above the ground. It reaches a

maximum height of 23 m above the ground.

Calculate

a) the initial velocity

b) the velocity with which the ball strikes the ground

c) the total time the ball is in the air.

Solution 1

v2 = u2 + 2as

0 = u2 + 2(-9.8)(21.8)

0 = u2 427.28

u = 427.28 (to 3 s.f.) initial velocity is 20.7ms1 (to 3 s.f.)

Taking to be positive, u = 0, a = 9.8, s = 23

v2 = u2 + 2as

v2 = 02 + 2(9.8)(23)

v2 = 450.8

v = 21.2 (to 3 s.f.) The ball hits ground with a

velocity of 21.2 ms1 (to 3 s.f.)

34 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Solution 1

Taking to be positive, u = 427.28, a = 9.8, s = 1.2

v2 = u2 + 2as

v2 = 427.28 + 2(9.8)(1.2)

v2 = 450.8

v = 21.2 (to 3 s.f.) ball strikes ground with a velocity

of 21.2 ms-1 (to 3 s.f.)

c) Taking as positive, u = 427.28, v = 450.8, a = 9.8

v = u + at

(v u )

t=

a

( 450.8 427.28 )

t=

9.8

t = 4.28 (to 3 s.f.) ball is in the air for 4.28 s (to 3 s.f.)

35 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Examination-style question 2

straight road.

It passes a point A with a velocity of 8 ms1 and 5 seconds

later it passes a point B with velocity 25 ms1.

Find the velocity with which the car passes the mid-point of

AB.

The distance AB needs to be found first: u = 8, v = 25, t = 5

s = 21 (u + v)t

1

s = 2 (8 + 33)(5)

s = 82.5

the distance AB is 82.5 m and so the mid-point of AB is at a

distance of 41.25 m from A.

36 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

Solution 2

(v u )

v = u + at a =

t

(25 8)

a=

5

a = 3.4 the acceleration of the car is 3.4 ms2.

The velocity of the car as it passes the mid-point of AB can

now be found: u = 8, a = 3.4, s = 41.25

v2 = u2 + 2as

v2 = 82 + 2(3.4)(41.25) = 344.5

v = 344.5 the car passes the mid-point of AB with

a velocity of 18.6 ms1 (to 3 s.f.)

37 of 37 Boardworks Ltd 2005

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