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a 3980 V, 3-phase line generates excitation voltage EO

of 1790 V (line-to-neutral) when the dc exciting current

is 25 A

The synchronous reactance is 22 and the torque

angle between EO and E is 30

Example

Calculate Value of Ex

E = EL /3 = 3980/ 3 = 2300 V

E is assumed as reference phasor E = 2300 0

Therefore EO = 1790 30

Ex = E E O

Ex = (23000) (1790300)

Ex =1168 50

Example

The line current I = (116850)/

(2290)

I = 53 40

Calculate Power factor of the

motor

The power factor = cos = cos 40 = 0.766, or

76.6%

The power factor is lagging

Example

horsepower

developed by the motor

Total active power input to the stator

Pi = 3EPIP cos = 3(2300)(53)cos 40

Pi = 280142 W = 280.1 kW

Neglecting the I2R losses and iron losses, Electrical

power transmitted is 280.1 kW

Approximate horsepower developed

P = 280142/746 = 375 hp

Example

at the shaft

T = (9.55 x P)/n = (9.55 X 280142)/720

T = 3715 Nm

Example

resistance of 0.64 per phase and has the following

losses

I2R losses in the rotor: 3.2 kW

Stator core loss: 3.3 kW

Windage and friction loss: 1.5 kW

Calculate the actual horsepower developed

Power input to thee stator = 280.1 kW

I2R losses in the stator =3 x 532(0.64) = 5.4 kW

Example

Power transmitted to rotor

= 280.1 8.7 = 271.4 kW

Power at the shaft = 271.4 1.5 = 269.9 kW

Rotor losses of 3.2 kW are provided by external dc source

Horse Power = 269.9/746 = 361.8 hp

Calculate the torque developed at the shaft

T = 9.55P/n = 9.55(269.9)/720 = 3580 N.m

Example

=269.9/(280.1 + 3.2) = 95.3 %

Power and Torque

from power line

P = (EoE/Xs)sin

The I2R losses of rotor are supplied externally by dc

supply

All power transferred to rotor is available as mechanical

power

Torque T = 9.55P/ns

Reluctance Torque

motor is running at no load

Motor continues to run at synchronous speed, even

when the excitation current is zero

Flux produced by the stator prefers to cross the short

gap between the poles and stator, rather than longer

gap between the poles

Reluctance Torque

salient pole

A mechanical load is applied to the motor, the rotor

poles will fall behind the stator, a considerable

reluctance torque is developed, without any dc

excitation

The reluctance torque will become zero when the rotor

poles are mid way between stator poles

Reluctance Torque

the salient poles in the opposite direction

Reluctance Torque is zero precisely at that angle where

the regular torque T attains its maximum value, = 90o

Losses and Efficiency- Comparison

between a 2000 and 200 hp motor

The excitation power to excite

2000 hp is 4.2kW (only twice more)

200 hp is 2.1kW

Larger the synchronous motor, smaller the per-unit

excitation power needed

Losses and Efficiency- Comparison

between a 2000 and 200 hp motor

2000 hp machine are 38kW (four times)

200 hp machine are 9.5kW

More horse power they develop, smaller the relative losses

Efficiency of 2000 hp is 97.5% while 200 hp 94%

Losses and Efficiency- Comparison

between a 2000 and 200 hp motor

2000 hp machine has XS 122 times larger than RS

200 hp machine has XS is only 24 times larger than RS

As a result we can easily neglect resistance of larger motors

Excitation and Reactive

Power

Y-connected synchronous motor is connected

to a 3-phase source

Line voltage EL and line to neutral voltage E

mmf force Ua in the stator

Rotor produces a dc mmf Ur

Total flux is therefore

combined action of Ua and Ur

Excitation and Reactive

Power

Flux induces line to neutral voltage Ea in

the stator

Neglecting small IR drop in the stator, Ea = E

Like a transformer, E is fixed so flux is also

fixed

The flux may be produced either by the

stator or rotor or both

Excitation and Reactive

Power

If the rotor exciting current Ix is zero

All the flux has to be produced by the stator

The stator absorbs considerable reactive

power from the three phase line

Excitation and Reactive

Power

If the rotor exciting current is increased

The rotor mmf helps produce part of the flux

Less power is drawn from the system

Raising the rotor exciting current gradually

The rotor produces all of the required flux

Excitation and Reactive

Power

The stator circuit draws no reactive power

(unity power factor)

The exciting current is increased exceeding

the critical level

The stator delivers reactive power to the ac

power system

Power Factor rating

unity pf

If they also have to deliver reactive power, they are

usually designed to operate at a full-load power factor of

0.8 (leading)

This kind of a motor can deliver reactive power equal to

75 percent of its rated mechanical load

3000 kW motor can supply 75% X 3000 = 2250 kvar

reactive power to the line at the same time as it develops its

rated output of 3000 kW

Power Factor rating

more costly than unity pf motors

For a given horsepower rating, both the

dc exciting current and the stator

current are higher

For a unity power factor motor operating at full-load, the

line-to-neutral voltage is Eab and the line current is Ip

Power Factor rating

The active power absorbed is equal to the mechanical

power of the motor

Power Factor rating

develops the same mechanical power as before

The line current Is leads Eab by arcos 0.8=36.87

This current can be broken up into two components Ip =

0.8Is and Iq = 0.6Is

The active power P = EabIp = 0.8EabIs

Power Factor rating

Q = EabIq = 0.6EabIs

So Q = 0.75P (75% of rated mechanical output)

If Ip is compared with Is then Is = 1.25Ip

For the same mechanical power output, a motor

designed for a leading pf of 80% has to carry a line

current that is 25% greater than one that operates at

unity pf

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