You are on page 1of 25

Example

A 500 hp. 720 r/min synchronous motor connected to


a 3980 V, 3-phase line generates excitation voltage EO
of 1790 V (line-to-neutral) when the dc exciting current
is 25 A
The synchronous reactance is 22 and the torque
angle between EO and E is 30

Electro Mechanical System 1


Example

Calculate Value of Ex
E = EL /3 = 3980/ 3 = 2300 V
E is assumed as reference phasor E = 2300 0
Therefore EO = 1790 30
Ex = E E O
Ex = (23000) (1790300)
Ex =1168 50

Electro Mechanical System 2


Example

Calculate the AC line current


The line current I = (116850)/
(2290)
I = 53 40
Calculate Power factor of the
motor
The power factor = cos = cos 40 = 0.766, or
76.6%
The power factor is lagging

Electro Mechanical System 3


Example

Calculate the approximate


horsepower
developed by the motor
Total active power input to the stator
Pi = 3EPIP cos = 3(2300)(53)cos 40
Pi = 280142 W = 280.1 kW
Neglecting the I2R losses and iron losses, Electrical
power transmitted is 280.1 kW
Approximate horsepower developed
P = 280142/746 = 375 hp

Electro Mechanical System 4


Example

Calculate the approximate torque developed


at the shaft
T = (9.55 x P)/n = (9.55 X 280142)/720
T = 3715 Nm

Electro Mechanical System 5


Example

The motor of the previous example has a stator


resistance of 0.64 per phase and has the following
losses
I2R losses in the rotor: 3.2 kW
Stator core loss: 3.3 kW
Windage and friction loss: 1.5 kW
Calculate the actual horsepower developed
Power input to thee stator = 280.1 kW
I2R losses in the stator =3 x 532(0.64) = 5.4 kW

Electro Mechanical System 6


Example

Total Stator loss = 5.4 + 3.3 = 8.7 kW


Power transmitted to rotor
= 280.1 8.7 = 271.4 kW
Power at the shaft = 271.4 1.5 = 269.9 kW
Rotor losses of 3.2 kW are provided by external dc source
Horse Power = 269.9/746 = 361.8 hp
Calculate the torque developed at the shaft
T = 9.55P/n = 9.55(269.9)/720 = 3580 N.m

Electro Mechanical System 7


Example

Calculate the efficiency of the motor


=269.9/(280.1 + 3.2) = 95.3 %

Electro Mechanical System 8


Power and Torque

A synchronous motor operating under load draws power


from power line
P = (EoE/Xs)sin
The I2R losses of rotor are supplied externally by dc
supply
All power transferred to rotor is available as mechanical
power
Torque T = 9.55P/ns

Electro Mechanical System 9


Reluctance Torque

Excitation is gradually reduced when synchronous


motor is running at no load
Motor continues to run at synchronous speed, even
when the excitation current is zero
Flux produced by the stator prefers to cross the short
gap between the poles and stator, rather than longer
gap between the poles

Electro Mechanical System 10


Reluctance Torque

Reluctance of magnetic circuit is less in the axis of


salient pole
A mechanical load is applied to the motor, the rotor
poles will fall behind the stator, a considerable
reluctance torque is developed, without any dc
excitation
The reluctance torque will become zero when the rotor
poles are mid way between stator poles

Electro Mechanical System 11


Reluctance Torque

The reason is that N and S poles on the stator attracts


the salient poles in the opposite direction
Reluctance Torque is zero precisely at that angle where
the regular torque T attains its maximum value, = 90o

Electro Mechanical System 12


Losses and Efficiency- Comparison
between a 2000 and 200 hp motor

Large machines are more efficient


The excitation power to excite
2000 hp is 4.2kW (only twice more)
200 hp is 2.1kW
Larger the synchronous motor, smaller the per-unit
excitation power needed

Electro Mechanical System 13


Losses and Efficiency- Comparison
between a 2000 and 200 hp motor

The total losses


2000 hp machine are 38kW (four times)
200 hp machine are 9.5kW
More horse power they develop, smaller the relative losses
Efficiency of 2000 hp is 97.5% while 200 hp 94%

Electro Mechanical System 14


Losses and Efficiency- Comparison
between a 2000 and 200 hp motor

Synchronous reactance is much larger than resistance


2000 hp machine has XS 122 times larger than RS
200 hp machine has XS is only 24 times larger than RS
As a result we can easily neglect resistance of larger motors

Electro Mechanical System 15


Excitation and Reactive
Power
Y-connected synchronous motor is connected
to a 3-phase source
Line voltage EL and line to neutral voltage E

The line current I produces


mmf force Ua in the stator
Rotor produces a dc mmf Ur
Total flux is therefore
combined action of Ua and Ur

Electro Mechanical System 16


Excitation and Reactive
Power
Flux induces line to neutral voltage Ea in
the stator
Neglecting small IR drop in the stator, Ea = E
Like a transformer, E is fixed so flux is also
fixed
The flux may be produced either by the
stator or rotor or both

Electro Mechanical System 17


Excitation and Reactive
Power
If the rotor exciting current Ix is zero
All the flux has to be produced by the stator
The stator absorbs considerable reactive
power from the three phase line

Electro Mechanical System 18


Excitation and Reactive
Power
If the rotor exciting current is increased
The rotor mmf helps produce part of the flux
Less power is drawn from the system
Raising the rotor exciting current gradually
The rotor produces all of the required flux

Electro Mechanical System 19


Excitation and Reactive
Power
The stator circuit draws no reactive power
(unity power factor)
The exciting current is increased exceeding
the critical level
The stator delivers reactive power to the ac
power system

Electro Mechanical System 20


Power Factor rating

Most synchronous motors are designed to operate at


unity pf
If they also have to deliver reactive power, they are
usually designed to operate at a full-load power factor of
0.8 (leading)
This kind of a motor can deliver reactive power equal to
75 percent of its rated mechanical load
3000 kW motor can supply 75% X 3000 = 2250 kvar
reactive power to the line at the same time as it develops its
rated output of 3000 kW

Electro Mechanical System 21


Power Factor rating

Motors designed to operate at leading pf are bigger and


more costly than unity pf motors
For a given horsepower rating, both the
dc exciting current and the stator
current are higher
For a unity power factor motor operating at full-load, the
line-to-neutral voltage is Eab and the line current is Ip

Electro Mechanical System 22


Power Factor rating

The active power absorbed/phase is, P = EabIp


The active power absorbed is equal to the mechanical
power of the motor

Electro Mechanical System 23


Power Factor rating

An 80% power factor motor also operating at full-load


develops the same mechanical power as before
The line current Is leads Eab by arcos 0.8=36.87
This current can be broken up into two components Ip =
0.8Is and Iq = 0.6Is
The active power P = EabIp = 0.8EabIs

Electro Mechanical System 24


Power Factor rating

The reactive power delivered by the motor is


Q = EabIq = 0.6EabIs
So Q = 0.75P (75% of rated mechanical output)
If Ip is compared with Is then Is = 1.25Ip
For the same mechanical power output, a motor
designed for a leading pf of 80% has to carry a line
current that is 25% greater than one that operates at
unity pf

Electro Mechanical System 25