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MODULE 1:

UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS AND


TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL MEDIA
AND TECHNOLOGY

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Cont.

L / Unit 1

Definition of key terms, Historical and


Contemporary Issues on Educational media
and Technology

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Goal

To introduce you the concepts of Educational media


and technology.

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Specific Objectives

At the end of this lesson you should be able to:


(a) Provide in your own words, definitions of various
concepts / terms of educational
media and technology.
(b) Distinguish Traditional media and Modern media

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Definition of concepts/ Terms

Media
Educational media
Educational technology
Educational media and technology
Other commonly used terms

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Medium of Communication

Medium in Relation to message is means by which


message is transferred or shared.
Generally, Medium- singular and Media- Plural

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Media
Any means by which we send information and
collect information. Example: Language
Media is a plural form of medium

Medium is a means through which information is


shared among people participating in any form of
interaction. This may be verbal, nonverbal, written
and or on line conversation.

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Media cont

Example: People communicate through language.


News is transmitted through newspapers, radio and
television. Our forefathers communicated using drums
and the many tribes communicated by blowing animal
horns etc. The underlined are some form of media.
Therefore, language, drums, horns etc are some forms
of media.

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Educational Media

A means of communication in classroom


teaching/learning processes.
Any means used to share information between
teacher/learner and or learnig materials.
That form of information sharing requires immediate
or long - term feedback.

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Technology
The application of scientific principles to simplify
human labor.
For example: Windmill Simplifies human labor of
fetching water from wells.
The word technology comes from the word
technique that refers different techniques to facilitate
education provision and simplify the learning process.
Also, the word is mostly useful in engineering section.
In Education, technology simplifies teaching- learning
process that also includes physical education exercises
(PESC).

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Technology cont

Technology focus also on scientific effective


arrangement of teaching activities that facilitate
learning.
Therefore, Technology basically emphasizes on;
The application of science knowledge to improve human conditions
A scientific method of achieving a practical purpose.

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Cont.......

Technology is the process by which humans


modify nature to meet their needs and wants.
Most people, however, think of technology in
terms of its artifacts: computers and software,
aircraft, pesticides, water-treatment plants, birth-
control pills, and microwave ovens, to name a
few.

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Cont.....
But, technology is more than these tangible
products. Technology includes the entire infrastructure
necessary for the design, manufacture, operation, and
repair of technological artifacts, from corporate
headquarters and engineering schools to
manufacturing plants and maintenance facilities.

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Educational Technology
Is a scientific arrangement of events in teaching
activities that leads to an effective facilitation of
learning at a specific planned time factor hence better
and easy learning process.
The term Educational technology has invariably been
defined as follows:
Logical arrangement of educational activities or tasks to
improve human learning/teaching
A Scientific approach in the organization
implementation and evaluation of educational activities
Includes the systematic usefulness of Audio/Visual aids
in teaching - learning
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Educational Media and Technology

The application of scientific methods and media


activities to simplify human learning/teaching process
A systematic way of designing,implementing and
evaluating the total process of learning and teaching by
employing a combination of human and scientific
equipment to bring about effective instruction: (Coffey,
1977)
Generally, Educational media and technology refers to means
and techniques of doing things in education relatively to
the major means of communication that facilitate
various activities in education and finally leading to easy
and better learning process.

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Education Tech cont
Logical arrangements of education activities i.e.
preparation of subject matter from simple to complex
with reference to the given curriculum structure,
syllabus, schemes of work and lesson plan.
In other words, Educational media and technology is
referred as scientific approach in the organization
implementation and evaluation of education activities.
Example; Visual Aids- VCD, DVD Audio Records
Radio cassette, Audio CD, etc.
Development and evaluation of system techniques of
aids to improve the process of human learning
(Rowntree, 1982).

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Other commonly used terms

Audio- Visual materials


Materials that can produce sound and picture when
projected on a screen
Materials i.e. physical materials for seeing, hearing used
for teaching- learning process i.e. tables, projectiles
machines, VCD, DVD, ACD, etc.

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Others cont
Classroom: Building / a room where teaching and
learning is conducted.
Class: A combination of teachers, students and place
where teaching- learning is conducted.
Communication: Is the process of sharing
information between two to more people or oneself
through interaction. The process involves sender,
receiver through a specified media.
Language: An arbitrary vocal symbols system used in
communication facilitation

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Cont

Learning Aids
Resources designed to assist individual learners or
trainees.The learner is guided to follow pricise direction
for performing a given educational task.

It may be a checklist of steps or procedures to be


followed when assembling, operating or maintaining
equipment. It may include line drawing,or photographs
along with words to illustrate verbal explanation

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Cont

Training materials:
These relate directilyto instructional materials such
as handouts how to proceed with a unit or course
of study.
Mult Images

When two or more pictures are presented


simultaneously on one or more screen for viewing.

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Cont

Mult Media or Mult Image


Media as means by which we conduct information i.e.
newspaper, radio, tape, TV, etc.

Multi Media or Mult Image Refer more than two


to three media carrying the same message or image to
reach / display to many different receivers. Examples;
TV, Radio, Newspapers, direct speech, chalk board
media, etc. All these may carry and convey the same
message to reach many different receivers learners at
different areas.

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Cont

In addition, today we include Internet and E-mail system


for E- teaching learning as one of the distance
learning system.

Various media differently i.e. TV, Radio, Newspaper,


Internet, tape, etc. carry and convey the same message
to various/ different receivers i.e. learners

When more than one type of media are used


sequentially in a presentation as learning resources are
referred as Multimedia or Mult- Image

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Learning Resources

Anything around that can facilitate affective learning e.g


books, specimens, electronic materials, and other
object /colleagues
Any material that we can use as a source to facilitate
knowledge acquisition and general learning process i.e.
books, library, video tapes, spacemen, chemicals,
human being as a teacher facilitates knowledge to
students.

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Qn. Why does the teacher clean the
blackboard as soon as enters in the classroom?
Reasons:
To draw attention of learners in the classroom
To avoid students not to go on reading what was
previously written on the blackboard.
To make learners aware, that it about to start a new
lesson.

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Cont.......

Instructional Educational Technology and


Learning

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Instructional Aids and Resources

These include variety of print and audio-visual


materials which an instructor uses to present
ideas, concepts and information more clearly
than would be possible for spoken word alone.
These aids to the instructor may be classified
into those which are no-mechanical such as
blackboards, flipcharts, models, realia and
printed text.

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Cont........

The mechanical devices include overhead, slide


and film projectors and sound recording and
playbacks units.
Each of these devices has a unique contribution
in assisting the instructor to achieve desired
learning outcome

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Resource-Based or Packaged Course Application

Correspondence: Relying on printed materials


and reading assignments. Correspondence
education has enabled people in remote areas or
those temporarily away from home center to
pursue a programme of study
Audio-cassette: in some cases these have been
recorded for classroom or lectures made
available to students studying on their own

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Cont......

Multi-media: several multimedia are utilized in


addition to print ones. These include: slides,
filmstrips, models, pictures, and recorded sound
to convey full multi-sensory learning package

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Guidelines for Choosing Learning Resources
Select the materials that fit with the experiences,
interests and abilities of the learners, and are
useful to them in applying what they have learned
in their own situations
Choose resources that effectively take advantage
of the context in which the learning is taking
place
Choose materials that explain well what is being
taught

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Cont.......

Select resources that focus attention on the


essence of the topic
Adopt materials that can take you where you can
not otherwise go
Use variety of resources
Avoid the overuse of the materials and other aids
Select resources that are available now or can be
designed in the needed time frame and can be
delivered effectively in the environment where
learning activity is to be held
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Cont.......

Opportunities for Educational media and


Technology and needs for Change

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Opportunities for Educational media and Technology and needs for Change

Benefits of Educational Technological Literacy


In a world permeated by the changing technology in
education, an individual can function more effectively if
he or she is familiar with and has a basic understanding of
technology. A higher level of Media and technological
literacy in education would have a number of benefits, for
individuals and for the society as a whole.
The following are the opportunities benefits;

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Cont.....

1. Improving Decision Making


Literacy in educational media and technological
prepares individuals to make well-informed
choices of media and technology to use in
teaching or training programmes as facilitators in
education.
2. Increasing Learners Participation
A technologically literate learner is likely to
participate in the decision making on media being
used to teach them.
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Cont......

In a democratic teaching method, learners must


be involved in practicing to make teaching
models
Learners/ teachers input can be influential
during the design or research and development
(R&D) phase of educational media and
technology.

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Cont......

3. Supporting a Modern Workforce


Teachers are bombarded with new tools for
preparing and delivering lessons, researching
new teaching techniques, and enabling students
to learn outside the traditional setting.
Teachers and learners use the Global
Positioning System to learn on various subjected
issues.

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Cont.......

Literate teachers in educational media and


technology will tend to be more comfortable
dealing with various teaching learning media and
technologies that their jobs demand and will
find it easier to master new educational media
and technologies as they come along.

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Cont.......

4. Narrowing the Digital Divide


Most teachers and learners who have access to
the Internet, either at work, classroom, labs or at
home, and those most likely to know how to
take advantage of its learning resources are more
affluent, better educated.
Access to a personal computer is the single most
important factor and opportunity in whether or
not a person uses the E- mail and Internet
services for teaching, learning or updating
knowledge. 38
Cont.......
A number of remedies have been suggested for
closing the Digital divide. Most focus on
providing universal access to the Internet so that
everyone can get online teaching and learning
access regardless of income level or job status.
Equally important will be improving educational
technological literacy because the better teachers
and learners understand the Internet and its value
the more likely they will be able to make the
effort to learn how to use it ultimately realizing
learning objectives.
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L / Unit 2

Types and Categories of Educational Media


and Classroom Instructions

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Cont..
Goal
To familiarize you with different types and
categories of educational media and
classrooms instructions.

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Specific objectives

At the end of this learnig unit you will be able to:


(a) Differentiate Traditional media from the
Modern ones.
(b) Describe the relationship between Modern and
Traditional media
(c) Defend the superiority of Modern over
Traditional media

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Types and Categories of Educational Media and
Technology

(1.) Types of Educational Media and Technology


There are two major types / Categories of
Media;
Traditional media and

Modem media

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TRADITIONAL MEDIA
These are ancient means locally produced and used by
our forefathers to communicate information, facilitate
teaching and learning process.
Local materials and symbols convey information to the

receiver for education purpose i.e. Language, drums, signs, dances,


pictures, etc.

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Cont.

Examples of educational traditional media include;


language, drums, signs, songs, dances, prints, models,
and simple machines etc. These are, in fact, the bases
for recent development to modern media. They were
very useful in developing instructions in the informal
education which was mostly practical oriented.

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MODERN MEDIA

These are more recent media that appear to be new or


modern in society. They are either produced locally or
imported easily.
New media resulted by the todays development of science and
technology that has reconditioned traditional media. The new
instructional media involves; Telephones, open speakers,
microphones, TV, Radio, Cinema show, Video show, Pictures
etc.) In addition, more sophisticated modern technology of today
includes; Computers, camera, digital version, internet explorers,
VCD, DVD, ACD, etc.

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Cont.

The educational modern media include; electronic


technology or equipment such as Computer,
Photocopy, Video Camera, T.V. Receiver and Video
deck etc.

It is argued that modern media are only a convenience


of traditional media Telephones for example are a
convenience of traditional drums sounded to
communicate information. As well as TV/Video show
is a convenience of film, slide or picture show/display.

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Cont

And any effective communication today combines both


pictorial images and language in the same way it did in
the past, but only in a more sophisticated technology.

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(2.) Categories of Educational Media and
Technology

There are two different perspectives on what we call


categories of educational media and technology.
Perspective 1: Educational Media and technology can
be categorized into two forms namely Big and Little
Media.
For example, Schramm (1966) categorizes educational
media into;
Big Media
Little Media

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Cont

Big Media (Sophisticated media with modern soft


wares; TV, Radio, Video- AV, Computers, DVD,
VCD, ACD. Includes all the electronic- complex media
which are even difficult to operate.)

Little Media (Easy to operate and less expensive ones.


Includes books, flies, handouts, Pamphlets, brochures,
files, documentaries, etc.)

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Perspective 2

Educational Media and technology can be categorized


into two forms namely printed and non - printed
Media. Whereby Printed Media involves simple media
such as Journals, news paper, little reports, work sheets,
charts, books, research reports, documentaries, etc.)

Non Printed Media (Interactive Video, Magnetic


boards, Projectors (Sound like film projectors),
computers, Audio, Broad cast- Radio, TV, Film scripts,
Flannel cloth.).

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Cont.

For example, Coffey (1977) and Romiszowski


(1984) argue that, educational media can be
categorized into;
Printed Media

Non- Printed Media

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Printed Media

Refer written and printed documents used as


instructional materials, they are simple to operate and
they are no expensive ones. They include; text books,
work sheet, maps, charts, photographs, posters,
Newspapers, Journals, handouts, fliers and brochures
booklets, folders, leaflets and pamphlets
(Romiszowski, 1984 and Coffey, 1977).

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Non- printed Media

Are the multifaceted media, expensive and need


effective skills and knowledge to operate. Mainly are
electronic equipments including; Audio/ video
cassettes, Radio/TV broadcasts, Slides, film strips,
computers display and interactive computerized video,
Magnetic boards, flannel boards, sound film projector,
etc (Romiszowski, 1984 and Coffey, 1977).

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Cont.

NOTE: Both printed and Non- printed media may be either


projected or none - projected.
{Link to the graphical illustration}

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MEDIA

PRINTED MEDIA NON PRINTED MEDIA


Work sheets - Audio/Video
Maps, Charts Cassette
Photographs - Radio Broadcasts
Posters - Television
Newspapers Broadcasts
Journals - Computer Display
Hand outs - Interactive Video
Pamphlets - Magnetic Boards
Articles - Flannel Board
- Sound Film projector

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Cont.....

Trend of Media and technology Development


in Education

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Technological Studies

Developing educational technological literacy


will require early and regular contact with
changes in technology as a focus of study.
Unfortunately, educational technology has not
been the focus of study in many countries
Educational technology and information
technology are relatively new academic subject
with roots in the industrial arts movement that
began in the early twentieth century that need to
be promoted.
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Technology Content in Teacher Education
Schools of education spend virtually no enough
time developing technological literacy in those
who will eventually stand in front of the classroom
to enhance educational media training / teaching
The integration of technology content into other
subject areas, such as science, mathematics, social
studies, English, and art, could greatly boost
technological literacy.
Without teachers trained to carry out this
integration, however, technology is likely to
remain an afterthought in education. 59
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Issues and challenges for 21st century
Process and product
Level of interactivity. The goal of any good
communication system is to provide as much as
instantaneous feedback and involvement of the receiver as
possible
Quality and technical standards. Technology should be
used to enhance the quality of the message; to make sure
that is seen as well as heard

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Cont......

Editorial control. The control of the


information and structure is another key issue.
The key question is who decides on what will be
transmitted and how it will be structured?
Associated Costs related to design, production
and use of the material (s)
Adoptability level of acceptance and
integration with current value system

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Factors for the Development of Educational
Media & Technology in Tanzania

The development of Educational media and


Technology depends on the following major factors
to be available;
Human capital ( knowledge & skills)

Natural resources (Educational resources)

Fund for effective facilitation

Time

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Question

a) Discuss any five factors that hinder the making


and effective usage of educational resources in
teaching and learning processes in Tanzania
schools.
b) Suggest how to overcome each factors.

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Factors that Hinder the Making
and Effective Usage of Educational Resources in
Teaching and Learning Processes in Tanzania
unavailabilityof instructional materials and Aids
Lack of creativity for effective usage of educational
resources in teaching and learning in the classrooms
and schools at large.
Poor teaching methods

Shortage / insufficient capital to get teaching


resources
Very poor human resources (man power/ teacher
shortage)
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Cont..
Overcrowded classroom ( T: P ratio) & (C: P ratio)
failure to utilize the available resources
Heavy teaching load in efficient design &
utilization of the L / resources
Ineffective instruction on the availability and usage
of the few available from the school management
Teachers tendency to Ignore usage of educational
media resources as a dominant teachers attitude on
the need of the T / L resources
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Cont..
Effective instruction from the school management
For teaching + prepare instructional resources
Teachers attitude on the need of the T / L
resources Tendency to Ignore

Suggested Alternatives to Overcome the Factors


Initiation of Educational media & Technology
resources workshop, audio visual units in schools
Special facilitation of training for effective usage of
educational resources (Man power)
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Cont
Efficient Educational resources management and
storage
Ensure proper - Classroom: students ratio.

- Teacher: pupil ratio


Have enough man power, time and space;

- Conduct workshops for the application of the


educational media and technology

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Summary
Educational Media resources
These the are the Instructional resources that can

be seen touched etc


= Microscope
= Microphone
= DVD, MP3, MP4, VCD
= Epson (Projectors) OHP or LCD
= White boards etc, marker pens etc

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Cont..
They make Teaching- learning process to be easies
because they involve more than one sense i.e.
speaking, learning, touching, seeing and touching

Educational resources
The materials that facilitate learning such as:
Teachers / Lecturers- deliverers, Technicians,
Library attendants Knowledgeable in teaching
methodologies.
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GROUP OF TEACHING LEARNING
RESOURCES
Human Resources:- Teachers, Lecturers,
Technicians
Objects: - Present real things to learners which are
given to see and make them easier to understand
the materials. Eg: Specimen
Place:-Include immovable things but se part and
perked of instructional resources. Eg: Mountains,
Hills, Villages, Meanders, Oceans, Rivers, Historical
sites & risers, Games & Parks, Grater, etc.
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Cont
Library: The place where we find books, Journal,
Research report, Computer, New papers, Internet
service, Photocopiers etc.

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EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESOURCES
CENTRE
The place or room or a complex house that
contains educational resources which are these to
be used by Teachers, Lectures, Students / Pupils
and Other learners.
The place where people gain knowledge idea &
skills
The area where we find various research report &
projects report

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Features of The Education Media Resource
Center
In the educational media resource centre we expect
to find the following;
experts, Technicians & Coordination of either
maths, Geo, Biology, Chemistry, Physics,
English, History, Kiswahili, Technical subjects /
Studies or Computer etc.
Educational media resources i.e. TV, Computer,
Telephone, Photocopy, Printer, Internet, Fax
machine, Radio, Music systems, Public-sound
systems microphone etc. 77
Functions of Educational Resources Centre

Procurement and storage of educational


materials relevant to teaching learning
programs.
Provision of adequate facilities and guidance for
the production and application of teaching
learning materials.
Plays a coordination role: - Where by various
institutional activities are enriched and
maintained of the centre for the maximum
utilization of the available educational resource.
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Cont
Plays the role of educational materials classification
for leaders students, Pupils, Teachers and all other
facilitators.
Hosts seminars, Workshops, Conference / meeting
etc.
NOTE
Educational media resources include:
- Printed & Non printed media, Audio,
- Visual, Audio Visual and Digital.

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Function of Educational Media Resources
Entertainment i.e.:- TV, News paper, Computer,
DVD, VCD, LCP Projector, OHP, Cinema show
etc.
Delivery of information
Persuasion function Convincing learners to learn.
Influencing function This implies that, they
influence a change of behavior into learners in the
classroom.

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The Impact of Education Media Resources in
Teaching Learning Setting
Motivation: - Learners become motivated and be
infers led with the lesson / subjects.
Enrichment:- Make something to have a value
laden Quality, Best or Most
Compensation of language deficiency:-
-Teaching aids / Instructional materials tend to be
expressive by it self to learners. Hence demands
no say from the instructor / teachers.
- Encourage active participation of learners.
- High degree of reinforcement in leaning. 81
Thank you for Effective Listening

end

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