You are on page 1of 44

m   

 
 
    

m$ mmm   %   %m  m 


m
 m    &  m
m
'
 m 

m

!"#
m (% 

 m  % 
 (m   
m  ) 
 )m  

m  %m$%
 m
)   *
)
) m%$
 
)
    

  m %( +m,


%%$- %m   
 +-,
-  $   
 +- ,
.% m   
 + ,

$ 
 
 +

,
m %$    
 + ,
m    $    + ,
m

/00 m )m m


  %$   
( $  
m  ) 
 (m   
 m  % 
 %m$%
( 
m-m$ 
(%   
% $
$ (   m  * 
(  
  1 203$m 
-

Earliest Flat technology


Low Cost
Good Luminance
Excellent Viewing Angle
Long Life
Matrix Addressing
Wire Emitters
Cathodoluminescent
Mechanical Complexity
Low Resolution
High Filament Power
- 

MATRIX DISPLAY

LARGE VIEWING ANGLE

HIGH BRIGHTNESS,HIGH RESOLUTION

EXCELLENT COLOUR GAMUT

TECHNOLOGY NOT MATURE


-  $  


m%%m

$ $

%m-  $  

m( $  - $

m(%( 
- 
#
Field emission displays,
electrons coming from
millions of tiny microtips
pass through gates and
light up pixels on a
screen.

This principle is similar


to that of cathode-ray
tubes in television sets.
The difference: Instead
of just one "gun"
spraying electrons
against the inside of the
screens face, there are
as many as 500 million
of them (microtips).
!
The cathode/backplate is a
matrix of row and column
traces. Each crossover
lays the foundation for an
addressable
cathode emitters.

Each crossover has up to


4,500 emitters, 150 nm in
diameter. This emitter
density assures a high
quality image through
manufacturing
redundancy, and long-life
through low operational
stress.


Emitters generate
electrons when a
small voltage is
applied to both row
(base layer) and
column (top layer).

4

Faceplate picture
elements (pixels) are
formed by depositing
and patterning a black
matrix, standard red,
green, and blue TV
phosphors and a thin
aluminum layer to
reflect colored light
forward to the viewerà
$!#
56$!#

Typical field emission characteristics of the FEA pixel with an area of 240 mm x
240 mm containing 1.4x10 6 tips:
7!"7

Characterised by
‡ Superior mechanical strength
(bending modulus 1 TPa)
‡ Low weight
‡ Good heat conductance
‡ Ability to emit a cold electron at
relatively low voltages due to high
aspect ratios (102±104) and nanometer
size tips (1 ± 50 nm).
- !
I r tl i l i ffi i  l  i 
ffii
i i (/W)
-li l r t 6R (t 3
r r ti 3 K )
V 6 l 6t  i i   .8
V i t t  t   r
~ . 6 3
lt l  l  O /  
V
tri r    t 8 K 7
6 itl i t t f r
ftri it
ritl 6  - / t f 6
6 t t r 6  l 
%
-  m78
Spindt type FED
V ?ield problems ƛ Tip wear off, high vacuum
V High cost of submicron technology for Spindt
type emitters
V High Voltage Breakdown due to electron
bombardment and spacer charging
V Phosphor decay in case anode is at low
voltage to counter the above problem
V Backscatter from anodes at high anode
voltages leading to cross talk
- 9  #!

Spindt Type Emitters


V mldest, Expensive and ?ield problems
Carbon Nanotube Emitters (Max R&D funds)
V Japanese funding lot of research for display application
V Has problems with Short range uniformity
V Potential of low cost printing for manufacture
SED (Surface-Conduction Electron-Emitter
Display)
V Does not have emitting tips, uses electron tunneling
V Being pursued by Toshiba ƛ Canon (IPR bought from
Candescent) for commercialisation (50ơ prototype by
2005)

The structure consists of two thin layers of dielectric with


phosphor sandwitched between them. A thin Al layer on the top
and thin ITO layer on the bottom completes EL.When voltage of
order of 200V is applied the resultant high electric field
(1MV/cm) tunnels electrons through dielectric on to phosphor.
The high energy of electrons impact the colour centres to emit
visible light.
High brightness, high resolution,
Blue phosphor improvement required
High voltage switching
High purity materials
Small sizes
Expensive


Most mature flat panel


technology
Major share of FPD market
Poor intrinsic viewing angle
Requires backlight
Inefficient
Slow
Effected by Temperature and
sunlight

 
#!
(m
:0!;! 

<20!;! 


#;!



$"!!
!

(#! 6
#!
76



Large Displays >32´


High Resolution
High Brightness
Good Contrast
Good Colour gamut
Large viewing angle
High Speed
Presently High Cost

$=0>




)8

Address electrode Reaction causes each


causes gas to The plasma emits UV subpixel to produce red,
change to plasma in discharge region green, and blue light.
state. which impinges on
the phosphor
!"!"6


 
$!#
!
 ?
!?!
6# 
;
"!
#
""!
6!"!7

!!!! <00@A
 !
Colour Gamut comparable to CRT, with potential
to get better ± Striking visual appeal
Thinner ± No backlight
Less Expensive than LCD due to lesser
components
V White + Color Filter route takes away some of
this advantage
Potential for printing in manufacturing.
Flexible and Conformal Displays
 

 m78
Materials
V Small molecule lifetimes still not OK for TV
applications, although robust for mobile phones
V Polymers struggling with material stability

Manufacturing
V UHV process not easily scalable to larger Mother
Glass. Currently, manufacturing restricted to 370 x
470mm
V Printing (Polymers) still in R&D stage

Active Matrix Back plane


V Incompatible with the existing a:Si technology

V LTPS technology (considered suitable for current


driven devices) suffers from uniformity problems and
restricted to displays < 8´
Y  
Y

6 

 
 

 
6   !
6    !   !
   !
   !
6   !
m
B!m
m
B! C 
!$
Ö  

  

  



 
à

Öà



 
 
  
 


 

à


!"à

!##à
! !
! !
Originally developed and patented by
Professor David Bloom and his students at
Stanford University.
Further work done by Silicon Light Machines.
GLV technology acquired by SONY for
applications in display devices => Expect
rapid growth.
In the high-end display market (simulation,
planetarium) Silicon Light Machines is
partnered with Evans & Sutherland.
Silicon Light Machines acquired by Cypress
Semiconductor Corporation - GLV technology
for optical communication.
GLV device -- parallel rows of reflective ribbons.

Alternate rows of ribbons can be pulled down to


create a diffraction grating.
 
  m  

ù ˜ 



w w w
w w w wwww
 wwww ww 
 w   w 
w  w
w

w www
   www
 w 
 w 

w 
w
ww ww
w
  w   

ù 



w w
wwwwwwww w 
w www  ww
w  w
  w w w  ww  w  w
w
w wwww  

  ww   w
w w
www  w
  

ù ˜ 



w w  w
w w
 w 
 w w w
w
w  w
 w  w

 ww  w
 w  
w  ww 
w 
w  
w
 ww w
w w!w 
 w ww w w
w  

ù p


w w
w
www  ww w 
ww   w
w ww"  

w w www
    m (% 

!!7"!
$  $  

-  
 
? < 15´ <15´ < 1´ >30´ <15´ > 60´ No limit
(!! < 100 <100 <100 <500 <500 <500 >10000
m"! Medium High High High High Medium High
! Small Small Medium Large Large Large Large
66 C; 6 6 - 1 5 6 50
""! Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
$"6! Medium V.High High Medium Medium High Low
!# 1 5 5 1 2 3 <1
$8!# Established Establish Established Entering ?
Established In 2 years
    

 

     

  
      M M 
%    M   
  
    $ 
  
        M M 
     
  
  M  
   
  "       
 #   
! 
 

        M M  
        
   
   
     
 


    

 

§§§    §§ 


      )
    Y
    
Y
  

 

- Y  *+  ,%         ! #


 -
+
 
,% %
     


 
   
 
 & '( #   
 $

      "    
   
      
 

 
     
   
   #
 
         
 
     
   !
  

  

     
    
 
        
YY
        


    
 
    
   

      
  
  
§     Y 



  
       
 

  

 (!!*
Price - $ / diagonal inch
h

h

h

h
 h  h   
h
 
   
 

  


  
  

   

   h 

Ö $%   %& '
 (  )  à &
   )
** 


 
     
 à
Ö # )  
 
  
 (à $  )
**
  (  

  )
 
Price - $ / diagonal inch
h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h
 h  h      h  

Ö +& ,   
- %& '    
     à
+
 )  $% %& ' )
**
  
 
 à  

  
 
 
    $% %& ' 
 *  


 )
 à
Ö +
 ) *  )    %& '     
 

 %& ' )
 
  
    
   ) 

./0   10

  
  %& '  23 ./0à
Thank you