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BEKG 2433

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
(SISTEM ELEKTRIK)

Lecture 1 : Introduction

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Reference

[1] Glover, Sarma, Power System Analysis and Design, 4th ed.,
Thomson Learning, 2008.- main reference

[2] Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, 2nd ed., Mc-Graw Hill, 2004.

[3] William D. Stevenson, Jr., Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th


ed., Mc-Graw Hill, 1998.

[4] Grainger and Stevenson Jr, Power System Analysis, Mc-Graw Hill,
1994.

[5] Arthur R. Bergen, Power System Analysis, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall,
2000

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Class policy

• Be punctual to lecture & tutorial


• Pay attention to class,take notes when necessary
• Silence out all handphones
• Do your assigned readings! (especially by Glover)
• Do your homeworks!
• Regularly check the e-learning portal for updates of
lecture notes/assignments etc.
• If don’t understand, rise hand, ASK!! – or, can discuss
later during tutorial or other times (open door policy)
• If get bored/sleepy....get out, wash your face & come
back.

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Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of this class, the student
should be able to:
Describe the basic concept of the electric
power system network (generation,
transmission and distribution) and various
power generation system and energy
sources.

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What we will learn?

• Fundamentals of Power System


• Generator
• Power Transformer
• Transmission line
- Parameters
- Models
• Introduction to Power System Protection

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POWER SYSTEM
Electricity arrive in Malaysia at around 1900
Power engineering- past, present &
future
•In the past, electrical power is only viable at cities.
•Nowadays, electric power is so important– like air we
breathe, can’t live without it! Therefore, it need to be
sustainable, or, we’ll fall apart.
• Presently, is one of the oldest, largest, fastest
growing & most complex system ever invented – and
need constant improvement .
• Future – going towards more reliable, secure,
efficient, environmentally friendly, secure, (e.g. green
energy, new technology on smarter grid system, asset
management system etc).
•All in all, power engineering must KEEP THE
LIGHTS ON

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August th
14 , 2003 Blackout

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Power
 Instantaneous rate of consumption of energy,
 How hard you work!
 Power Units:
Watts = voltage x current for dc (W)
kW – 1 x 103 Watt
MW – 1 x 106 Watt
GW – 1 x 109 Watt
 Installed Malaysian Generation is about 18,000MW.
 Maximum load of Malaysia is about 13,000MW.

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Energy
 Energy:
 Integration of power over time,
 energy is what people really want from a power system,
 How much work you accomplish over time.
 Energy Units:
Joule = 1 watt-second (J)
kWh = kilowatthour (3.6 x 106 J)
Btu (British thermal unit) = 1055 J; 1 MBtu=0.292 MWh

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Power System Examples
 Electric utility: can range from quite small, such as an
island, to one covering half the continent
 there are four major interconnected ac power systems
in North America, each operating at 60 Hz ac; 50 Hz is
used in some other countries.
 Airplanes
 Ships and submarines.
 Automobiles: dc with 12 volts standard and, in the future,
42 volts.
 Battery operated portable systems.
 Etc etc…

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Energy Economics
 Electric generating technologies involve a tradeoff
between fixed costs (primarily capital costs to build them)
and operating costs
 Nuclear, wind, and solar high fixed costs, but low
operating costs,
 Natural gas has low fixed costs but relatively high
operating costs (dependent upon fuel prices)
 Coal in between.
 Total average costs depend on fixed costs, operating
costs, and capacity factor (ratio of average power
production to capacity).

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Sources of Energy
Other sources of energy:
Other
Hydro
3.5%
2.6%
Nuclear
8.1% Petroleum
39.8%
Natural Gas solar wind
22.9%

Coal
23.1%

Sources of geothermal Sea current/wave


energy in
the US

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Hydroelectric Power Plant
Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Sources of Energy/ capacity mix -
- Malaysia

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Generation Plant in Malaysia

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Electrical Utility Industry
Structure
 Within a particular geographic market, the electric
utility had an exclusive franchise
In return for this exclusive
Generation franchise, the utility had the
obligation to serve all
Transmission existing and future customers
at rates determined jointly
Distribution by utility and
regulators/governments
Customer Service

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Electrical Power System in Malaysia

 Malaysia’s electricity supply system comprises 3


major franchise areas:
 Peninsular Malaysia (holds 90% of Malaysia’s
generation capacity)
 Sarawak
 Sabah
 Power stations consists of from TNB (Tenaga
Nasional Berhad) & IPPs (Independent Power
Producers).
 Grid system in Peninsular Malaysia is controlled
and operated by TNB
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Goals of Electric Power System

 Supply load (users) with electricity at


 specified voltage (240V ac common for residential),
 specified frequency (50Hz in Malaysia)
 at minimum cost consistent with operating constraints,
safety (people & environment) etc.

KEEP THE LIGHTS ON!!

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Grid System in Semenanjung Malaysia
Consists of:
 Power Stations (Stesen Janakuasa)
 Substations(PMU & SSU)
 Customers
 Interconnection with Thailand &
Singapore
 Transmission System
 500kV
 275kV
 132kV
 66kV

 Distribution system
 33kV
 11kV
 415V
 240V

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Typical Outdoor Substation
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General (continued)
 Highlights of Peninsular Grid System:
 Total number of customer: 6,253,239 (Aug ‘05)
 Maximum demand: 15,826 MW (Jun‘12)
 Maximum generation capacity: 21,749 MW (Jun
‘12)
 Types of power generation (% by capacity): 29%
thermal, 61% CCGT & OCGT, 10% hydro (Aug ‘06)
 Types of power generation (% by capacity): 33%
thermal, 58% CCGT & OCGT, 9% hydro (Jun ‘12)
 Type of primary fuel: Natural gas, coal, hydro, oil*
and distillate*
 System voltage: 500kV, 275kV, 132kV\
(* standby and back-up fuel stock)
CCGT =Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
OCGT =Open Cycle Gas Turbine
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Status Sistem 2006 (sepintas lalu)
(Sambungan)

Jumlah circuit-km talian 500kV 890 cct-km


pengantaran 275kV 6,730 cct-km
132kV 10,436 cct-km
Jumlah circuit-km kabel Jumlah 735 cct-km
(275kV & 132kV)

Bilangan alatubah 500kV 7


275kV 129
132kV 864

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General (continued)

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Complications/Challenges
 No ideal voltage sources exist.
 Loads are seldom constant and
are typically not entirely resistive.
 Transmission system has
resistance, inductance,
capacitance and flow limitations
Daily curve
 Power system is subject to
disturbances, such as faults, 25000

lightning strikes. 20000

MW Load
15000
 Simple system has no 10000
redundancy so power system will 5000
not work if any component fails 0 1
518
1035
1552
2069
2586
3103
3620
4137
4654
5171
5688
6205
6722
7239
7756
8273
 Engineering tradeoffs between
Hour of Year
reliability and cost.
Yearly curve
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End of Lecture 1

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