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ABSORPTION AND DIGESTION

OF CARBOHYDRATES

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Atif Amin Baig


Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin,
atifamin@unisza.edu.my
RECALLS

1. What is glycogen?
2. What is a need of glycogen?
3. structure of glycogen?
4. What is UDP-glucose?
5. what is glycogenin?
6. steps in glycogen synthesis and glucose release?
7. glycogen regulation cycle and its types?
8. Glycogen balance and role of liver and muscle glycogen?
9. Fight and flight Theory
10. Glycogen storage diseases.
LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. What is a difference between digestion and absorption of carbohydrates?

2. Overview of the anatomical and histological associations of eliminatory canal.

3. Sources of carbohydrates in diet.

4. Mastication and functions of deciduous and permanent teeth

5. Stages of carbohydrate digestion

6. Stages of carbohydrate resorption

7. Gastric secretions

8. Integrated metabolic pathways for carbohydrates (CLO)


WHAT IS DIGESTION?

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food


molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that
they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In
certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed
through the small intestine into the blood stream.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestion
DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATES

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble carbohydrate


molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that
they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In
certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed
through the small intestine into the blood stream.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestion
ABSORPTION

1. the process of absorbing or the state of being absorbed

2. (Medicine) physiol
a. normal assimilation by the tissues of the products of digestion
b. the passage of a gas, fluid, drug, etc, through the mucous membranes or skin

3. (General Physics) physics a reduction of the intensity of any form of radiated energy as a
result of energy conversion in a medium, such as the conversion of sound energy into heat

4. (Physiology) immunol the process of removing superfluous antibodies or antigens from a


mixture using a reagent
[C16: from Latin absorptiōn-, from absorbēre to absorb]

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/absorption
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1. Alimentary Canal

2. Accessory Organs
ALIMENTARY CANAL
TUBULAR MOVEMENT OF
ELEMENTARY CANAL

Its a motor movement which is comprises of:

1. Mixing movement &


2. Propelling movement (Inclusive of Peristalsis)
TUBULAR MOVEMENT OF
ELEMENTARY CANAL
CARBOHYDRATES IN THE DIET

The major nutritional role of carbohydrates is to provide energy and


digestible carbohydrates provide 4 kilocalories per gram.

1. Monosaccharaides (Glucose, Fructose & Pentose)

2. Disaccharides (Lactose, Maltose & Sucrose)

3. Polysaccharides (Includes starch and glycogen)


MONOSACCHRIDES IN DIET
DISACCHARIDE IN DIET
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES

Oligosaccharides

Polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Dietary fiber

Starch: Major storage carbohydrate in higher plants


Amylose – long straight glucose chains (α1-4)
Amylopectin – branched every 24-30 glc residues (α 1-6)
Provides 80% of dietary calories in humans worldwide
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES

Oligosaccharides

Polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Dietary fiber
Major storage carbohydrate in animals
Long straight glucose chains (α 1-4)
Branched every 4-8 glc residues (α 1-6)
More branched than starch
Less osmotic pressure
Easily mobilized
LEVELS & SITES OF DIGESTION
OF CARBOHYDRATES

Digestion in Mouth

Digestion in Stomach

Digestion in Intestine
DIGESTION IN MOUTH

• Mechanical digestion

• Enzymatic digestion
MECHANICAL DIGESTION IN MOUTH

Mastication

Mastication or chewing is the


process by which food is crushed
and ground by teeth. It is the first
step of digestion, and it increases
the surface area of foods to allow
more efficient break down by
enzymes. During the mastication
process, the food is positioned by
the cheek and tongue between the
teeth for grinding
TYPES OF TEETH

• Incisors: wide flat, sharp cutting


edged helps in snipping food

• Canines: Shaped like daggers


and used for cutting, gripping,
ripping food. Also called Eye-teeth

• Premolar & Molar: Flat


surface and used for grinding food.
Premolar is small but molar are
large in size.
TYPES OF TEETH IN HUMANS

• Deciduous Teeth (20)


• 10 in each jaw, each jaw has 4 incisor, 2 canines and 4 molars

• Permanent Teeth (32)


• The four kinds are (1) incisors, (2) canines, (3) premolars, and (4) molars.
Malocclusion

It is the failure of the teeth in the


upper and lower jaws to meet
properly when a person bites.

Types of Malocclusion:

1.Overbite (buck teeth)


2.Underbite
3.Crowding
SUMMARY OF CARBOHYDRATE
DIGESTION & ABSORPTION
DIGESTION IN MOUTH

Dextrin: a soluble gummy substance obtained by hydrolysis of starch,


used as a thickening agent and in adhesives and dietary supplements.

Maltotriose is a trisaccharide (three-part sugar) consisting of three


glucose molecules linked with α-1,4 glycosidic bonds.

Isomaltose is a disaccharide similar to maltose, but with a α-(1-6)-linkage


instead of the α-(1-4)-linkage.
DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN INTESTINE
DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN INTESTINE

Maltase – specifically removes a single glucose from the nonreducing end of a linear a1-4 glucose chain…breaking down maltose into glucose. (exosaccharidases)

Alpha dextinase – cleaves 1,6-alpha glucosidic linkages


DIGESTIVE SECRETIONS

1. Saliva

2. Gastric Juice

3. Pancreatic secretions

4. Bile

5. Small intestinal secretions


SALIVA
GASTRIC JUICE
PANCREATIC SECRETION
BILE
SECRETIONS OF SMALL INTERSTINE

The glands of the small intestine (the Lieberkühn and Brunner glands) secrete additional digestive enzymes into the bowel.
Together with enzymes on the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium (peptidases, glycosidases, etc.), these enzymes ensure almost
complete hydrolysis of the food components previously broken down by the endoenzymes.
RESORPTION OF CARBOHYDRATES

Secondary active transport serves for the uptake


of glucose and galactose, which are transported
against a concentration gradient in cotransport
with Na+.

The Na+ gradient is maintained on the basal side


of the cells by Na+/K+-ATPase [3].

Another passive transporter then releases glucose


and galactose into the blood. Fructose is taken up
by a special type of trans- porter using facilitated
diffusion.

The monosaccharides released


The cleavage of polymeric carbohydrates by –amylase [1]
in this way then pass with the
leads to oligosaccharides, which are broken down further
help of various sugar–specific
by exoglycosidases (oligosaccharidases and disacchari-
transporters into the cells of
dases [2]) on the membrane surface of the brush border.
intestinal epithelium.
THANK YOU