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Microprocessors ASICs Integrated Circuit

Aditya Nur Ikhsan 13613004


integrated cIRCUITS

Integrated Circuits is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat


piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon

Name Signification Year Logic gates number


SSI Small-scale integration 1964 1 – 12
MSI Medium-scale Int 1968 13 – 99
LSI Large-scale Int 1971 100 – 9 999
VLSI Very large-scale Int 1980 10 000 – 99 999
ULSI Ultra-large-scale Int 1984 >100 000
integrated cIRCUITS
integrated cIRCUITS
MICROPROCESSORS

A microprocessor is a semiconductor device that incorporates most or all of the


features of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (also
known as a chip)
MOORE’S LAW

“Microprocessor processing power will double every two years”


in Aerospace Applications

Intel 4004 Intel 8086 Motorola M68020 Intel Pentium D


(1971) (1978) (1984) (2008)
Machine 4-bit 16-bit 32-bit 64-bit
Memory/Address 12-bit 20-bit 32-bit 32-bit
Clock frequency 740 kHz 10 MHz 33 MHz 3.73 GHz
Transistors 2300 20.000 190.000 230.000.000
Pin 16 40 114 700

PowerPC (Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing)


Is a reduced instruction-set computing (RISC) architecture created by the 1991
Apple-IBM-Motorola alliance (AIM)
INTEL 4004
CPU CACHE

A Cache is used by the CPU of a


computer to reduce the average time
to access memory.

The cache is a smaller, faster memory


that stores copies of the data from
the most frequently used
main memory location
Microcontrollers

A microcontroller is a small CPU (often just eight bits) with on-chip interface
components such as:
• Clock
• Interval timer and event counters
• Interrupt handling
• Serial I/O port UARTS and network interfaces
• Software configurable signal conditioning
• A/D and D/A converters
• A small amount of RAM for data
• A moderate amount of EEPROM or Flash memory for instructions and constants
Microcontrollers
Rock’s law

Many have argued that at some point a technology limit will be reached and
Moore’s Law will no longer apply.

However, Rock’s Law, “the cost of a fabrication plant doubles every four years”,
suggest that the limit will not be technological but financial.
asics

An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit (IC)


customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
MAIN TYPES of ASICs

ASICs

Gate Arrays or Field


Semi-Custom
Uncommitted Programmable
Standard cell
Logic Arrays gate arrays
based
(ULAs) (FPGAs)
FPGAS
FPGAS

The Technologies available to effect the interconnections are the same as


those developed for semiconductor ROM devices, namely:
• Fused-link PROM: One-time programmable
• EPROM (U/V erasable): usually one-time programmable in production
• EEPROM: electrically erasable
• Flash: can be bulk-erased
• S-RAM: contents defined by an external boot device, loaded at power-up.
DESIGN
Standard Cell Gate Array FPGA
Positives • Highest performance: 1 • Fairly low design, CAD and • Low design, CAD and up-
billion transistor at multi up-front costs front costs
GHz rates. • Time from design ready to • Time from design ready to
• Lowest high-volume cost first part 1-2 weeks first part almost zero
• Lowest mid-volume price
Negatives • High design, CAD and • Performance not much more • Low performance (millions
wafer costs than FPGA of implemented logic gates
• Long time to first-product @10s to 100s of MHz)
to market (long design • High unit cost ($1.000 s)
time + >4 weeks for fab)
SUMMARY

Integrated Circuit vs Microprocessor vs ASICs ?


SUMMARY

Microprocessor vs Microcontroller ?