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NEBOSH

Diploma Part 1

Unit 1A5
Measuring Health & Safety Performance

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Loss Management Model
Incidents

Reactive Risk Active


monitoring assessment monitoring

Investigations, Inspections etc


epidemiological and corrective
analyses and action
corrective action

Workplace precautions
Risk Control Systems (RCSs)
Trend Trend
analyses analyses

Review

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Proactive Strategies

• Gives feedback on performance prior to


accidents
• Based on a systematic management system
• Aims to measure success rather than punish
failure

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Proactive Monitoring
‘The key to good proactive monitoring
is the quality of the plans, performance
standards and specifications which
have been established’

HSE Successful Health & Safety Management

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Proactive Monitoring
• Examination of documents
• Examination of records
• Inspections of plant & premises
• Environmental monitoring
• Health surveillance
• Observation of working practices

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Proactive Monitoring
• Audits, inspections, sampling and tours
• Examination of performance against
statistical information from a variety of
sources
• Monitoring of development of, and
compliance with, risk assessments
• Corrective action to prevent accidents

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Reactive Strategies
• Accident statistics
• Ill health records
• Systems failures
• Investigations
• Corrective action to prevent re-occurrence

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Health & Safety Culture

• Positive culture required


• No blame
• All incidents reportable
• Accurate analysis & feedback

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Discussion

In groups of three discuss and list the proactive


and reactive strategies in your organisations

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Aims of Proactive Monitoring
• Inspections & reports of adequate quality
• Identification of common problems and
weaknesses
• Recognition of resource implications
• Validation of risk assessments
• Rectification of previous deficiencies
• Meeting identified training needs
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Proactive Methods

• Audits
• Inspections
• Tours
• Sampling

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Audits
• Systematic measurement & validation of an
organisation’s management of it’s health
and safety programme
• Looks at every aspect of process
• Usually undertaken by someone from
outside the department or organisation
• Can be an expensive process

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Inspections
• Planned
• Check on hazard control and working
practices
• Primarily a visual exercise but talk to staff!
• Statutory inspections e.g. cranes

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Safety Tours
• Unscheduled examination of work area
• Carried out by manager + safety reps. etc.
• Check standards and identify hazards
• Aims to identify need for full inspection
• Safety survey for processes

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Safety sampling
• Workplace divided into routes
• Walked by different people
• Number of hazards identified
• Information from all routes collated
• Identifies areas needing further study

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Sampling exercise

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Reactive monitoring
• Deals with investigation following an
incident
• Accidents
• Injuries
• Ill health
• Property damage
• Weaknesses in performance standards
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Investigation

• To learn from mistakes


• Improve performance
• Improve risk assessments
• Improve management system

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Statistical analysis
• Frequency rate
• Incident rate
• Severity rate
• Mean duration rate
• Duration rate

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Frequency rate
• Frequency of accidents per 100,000 hours
worked

Total number of accidents x 100,000


Total number of person hours worked

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Incident rate
• Accident rate per 1000 employees

Total number of accidents x 1000


Average number of persons employed

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Severity rate
• Average number of days lost per 1000 hours
worked

Total number of days lost x 1000


Total number of person hours worked

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Mean duration rate
• Average number of days lost per accident

Total number of days lost


Total number of accidents

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Duration rate
• Average number of person hours worked
between accidents

Number of person hours worked


Total number of accidents

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Weaknesses in statistical analysis
• Problems with definition of accidents
• Use of different multipliers
• Nature of work making comparisons
inappropriate e.g office/workshop
• Seasonal variations
• Under reporting of accidents

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Trainee accident exercise

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