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X-rays

 = 0.01 – 10 nm
X-rays Generator

1.24 x 10−6
𝜆= m
𝑉
X-ray Spectral Characteristics
X-ray spectral lines
X-rays frequency

2(
1 1
𝑓 = 𝑐𝑅 𝑍 − 1 2 − 2)
𝑛𝑓 𝑛𝑖

For K lines
3𝑐𝑅 𝑍 − 1 2
𝑓 𝐾𝛼 =
4

2
𝐸 𝐾𝛼 = 10.2𝑒𝑉 𝑍 − 1

R: Rydberg constant= 1.097 x 107 /m


X-ray diffraction

2𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑛𝜆

𝑎
𝑑ℎ𝑘𝑙 =
ℎ2 + 𝑘 2 + 𝑙 2