You are on page 1of 37

Introduction to MIS

Chapter 3 Networks and Telecommunications

Copyright 1998-2002 by Jerry Post

Introduction to MIS

Internal
Teamwork Communication Scheduling Sharing

Networks
Internet

External
Suppliers Customers Banks
Introduction to MIS

Outline

Introduction

Sharing Data Sharing Hardware Sharing Software Computers Media Connection Devices Software Shared Media Switched

Standards The Internet


Components of a Network

How the Internet Works Internet 2 Mobile Commerce Technical Problems Political Complications Cultural Issues Comment

Global Telecommunications

Network Structure

Cases: Specialty Retail Appendix: Creating Web Pages

Introduction to MIS

Sharing Data: Transactions

Internet

Database Management System and Web Server

Introduction to MIS

Sharing Data: Decisions & Searches


Decisions & searches Teamwork & joint authorship

File Server and Database

Team Document

Data and Tools

Report and Comments

Introduction to MIS

Sharing Data: E-mail


Internet
2. Message transferred to account on server. 3. Transferred via the Internet to the destination account. 4. Message received when user checks email.

1. User creates e-mail message.

Introduction to MIS

Sharing Data: Calendars

8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00

Mgt meeting (open) Staff meeting Staff meeting new meeting

Introduction to MIS

Printers Storage Processors

Hardware Sharing

Corporate or external computer access

tape drive (backup) Workstations

Shared Printer

Server

Files are transferred from workstations to the server. Software automatically copies files to tapes. LAN administrator can restore files if needed.

Introduction to MIS

Packet-Switched Networks

Data, Voice, Video


All converted to packets Packet has data, destination, and source address Switched services Sent as packets: Voice Packets routed as needed B 2 Reassembled at destination Chicago
C 4 E Dallas 5 D 3

12345

New York A 1 Atlanta

Computer

Sent as packets: A B C D E

Introduction to MIS

Computers

Network Components
Personal Computer LAN card

Servers Work stations Cables Fiber optic Radio Infrared Personal Computer LAN card

Media

Connection devices

Internet
LAN card Router or Switch Firewall LAN card Server Shared Printer

Introduction to MIS

Server Scalability
Server farms distribute the workload. Add more computers for more power.

Sun 10000

Increasing performance within a product family.


Rack mount server farm.
Compaq

Sun 3800

Sun Ultra 5
Introduction to MIS

Network Transmission Media

Wired:

Electricity Fiber optics Radio waves Infrared

Wireless

Fiber Optic Cable Example: Long distance phone lines


reflective cladding

Twisted Pair Example: Local phone lines

glass or p

lastic

Coaxial Example: Cable TV


Shield

Radio or Micro Waves Example: Cellular phones


antenna

Introduction to MIS

Fiber Optics

Faster More data Less magnetic interference Long stretches without repeaters

900 copper wires can be replaced by one fiber optic line (for telephone connections).

Introduction to MIS

Introduction to MIS

Introduction to MIS

http://www.jsc.mil/images/speccht.jpg
in es

Frequency Spectrum
z -2 16 M H -1 08 z TV : M 22 H z 0M -5 00 M H z 88 M KH 54 M TV :

ub m ar

av y

/s

AM :

55 0K

-1

65 0

ELF 100

VLF 1K

LF

MF 100K

HF 1M 10M

VHF

FM :

UHF 100M

Microwave Optical 1G 10G Hertz

All waves behave similarly


Sound Radio Micro Light Amount of data Distance Interference / Noise

Frequency differences

http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.pdf
Introduction to MIS

Pu b Pu lic b l Sa i f C c S ety el a : lu fet 15 la Pe Co r p y: 0 M rd rs ho 460 . C les ne M 16 om s p s: -5 0M . S ho 80 00 Hz ys ne 0 s (P M MH (s H C z z S) om PC : 1 e): .8 9 S ET 5 G 00 : - 2 MH 2 z . G H 2G z H z

Introduction to MIS

Telecom Services

Introduction to MIS

A thin fiber optic cable can carry as much data as 900 single copper wires, with minimal interference, and superior tensile strength.

The Importance of Bandwidth

Introduction to MIS

Shared Connections

With shared connections, machines have to take turns, and congestion can slow down all connections.

With switched connections, each computer has the full bandwidth of the connection at all times. Performance depends on how fast the switch can handle connections.

Introduction to MIS

Time Division
A B

A C D

A time

Computers A and B split their messages into packets and share the transmission medium by taking turns sending the data.

Introduction to MIS

Frequency Division
A B

frequency

3500 Hz

C C D

Computers A and B split the frequency: A uses a higher spectrum. By listening only to the assigned frequency, multiple transmissions can occur at the same time.

Introduction to MIS

Spread Spectrum
frequency

time

Sharing a medium by both frequency and time is one method of spread spectrum transmission. It is efficient for many computers because the full bandwidth can be utilized over time and frequency.

Introduction to MIS

Wireless Communication

Microwave transmissions are used to provide communications for cellular phones and laptop computers. As prices of phones, portable computers, and communication costs decrease, increasing numbers of workers are choosing wireless technologies.

Introduction to MIS

The need for standards A changing environment

Connecting Networks

Internet Backbone fiber optic Routers or Switches Switch

Hub Hub Radio-based network


Introduction to MIS

Shared-Media Network

Tap

Shared Media

Introduction to MIS

Switched Network
Switch

Servers

Workstations/PCs

Introduction to MIS

Building 1 Fiber optic

Enterprise Network
Building 2 Switch

Servers Firewall

Workstations/PCs

Internet ISP
Subsidiary
Introduction to MIS

Client server Peer-to-peer


Client/Server Network

Operating system Multitasking Server Server

Workgroup Printer Workgroup Printer Clients Clients

Introduction to MIS

TCP/IP Reference

Application

Mail, Web, FTP Authentication, compression, user services Packetize data and handle lost packets Establish connections through numbered ports Route packets to destination Requires unique host addresses: IPv4=32-bit; IPv6=128-bit Requires standards and cooperation Physical connections Transfers bits with some form of error correction

Transport

Internet Protocol (IP)


Subnet

Introduction to MIS

ISO-OSI Reference Model


Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
A A R
Original Data Translate Sign on and resources Data Packet Add routing data Addresses & Error Check

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link


R C

R C R C

Physical

Physical Media

Introduction to MIS

Introduction to the Internet


No control Services

Mail Telnet FTP WWW AltaVista HotBot Lycos WebCrawler Yahoo

WEB searching

The Internet

Introduction to MIS

How the Internet Works


Network service provider (NSP) T1: 1.544 Mbps T3: 44.736 Mbps Internet service provider (ISP) Phone company Cable company Phone company OC3: 155.52 Mbps OC12: 622 Mbps

Backbone network

Individual
Introduction to MIS

Dial-up: 33.3 - 56 Kbps ISDN: 128 Kbps DSL: 256 Kbps - 6 Mbps Cable: 1 to 10 Mbps

Company Web site

Backbone providers

Internet Connections

AT&T GTE Worldcom/MCI Sprint Qwest 1998: 39 AGIS AT&T Cable & Wireless IBM MCI/Worldcom Qwest Sprint UUNet

Phone companies

Regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs) (6) Competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) (new) AT&T Cablevision Regional. Direct Satellite Starband America Online Microsoft Network Earthlink

Network service providers


Cable companies

Satellite

Internet service providers


Introduction to MIS

M-Commerce
Internet access everywhere Cell phones PDAs Laptops

Great potential Limited usability Better than voice?


Introduction to MIS

Cell Phones and Wireless Communication


Wireless cells work by handing off the wireless connection to the next tower as the caller moves. Connections to multiple towers at one time enables the system to triangulate to get a fairly precise location of the cellular device--even when it is not in a call. Location knowledge will make it possible (although perhaps not desirable) to offer new business opportunities as people move into range.

Introduction to MIS

Global Telecommunications

Technical problems

Multiple standards Language Developing nations Time zones Limits to space & waves Transborder data flows Taxes Privacy Accessibility What is an object? Management & control

Political complications

Cultural issues

Introduction to MIS