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Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts -Albert Einstein

outline

Introduction
Who developed it?
Developed

by

Barney

Glaser

and

Anslem

Strauss in 1967 as a general qualitative data analysis approach where it is further developed to become grounded theory method.

Introduction
Definition:
It is an inductive data analysis in qualitative research where

newly collected data is compared with previous data that was collected in earlier studies.

This is done continuously as the theories are forming, and

consistently being enhanced, then being confirmed or disregarded all together when new data surfaces from data collection. (Savenye & Robinson, 1996)

Introduction
Definition:
Meaning the strategy involves taking one piece of

data and comparing it with all others that may be

similar

or

different

in

order

to

develop

conceptualization of the possible relations between various pieces of data.

Where is it applied?

A1

Applying constant comparative and discourse analysis to virtual worlds research by (Leong, Joseph, & Boulay, 2010)

A2

The use of information by environmental planners: a qualitative study using grounded methodology by Mutshawa, A. (2009)

A3

Patients action during their cardiac event: qualitative study exploring differences and modifiable factors by Ruston, A., Clayton, J., & Calnan, M. (1998)

Where is it applied?

A4

To explore where and how learning takes place in a networked leadership and development learning programme for SMEs by Peter, S. (2010)

A5

Tenure and Promotion Considerations: An Analysis of Cultural Issues by Ovington, J. et al.

A6

The role of schools perceived human resource policies in teachers professional development activities: a comparative study of innovations toward competence-based education by Seezink, A., & Poell, R. (2011)

Purpose of the articles


To show that by combining multiple data analysis methods to attain the different types of research questions. RQ: Students reactions to an experimental course taught online in Second Life.
To examine the use of information by environmental planners. RQ: Factors that help influence and explain behaviour exhibited by environmental planners.

A1

A2

Purpose of the articles


To explore the circumstances and factors that explain variations in response to a cardiac event. To identify potentially modifiable factors.

A3

A4

To explore where and how learning takes place in a networked leadership and development learning programme for SMEs

Purpose of the articles


To review a selected sample of literature on tenure decision-making and present a model for productivity analysis
This study investigates professional development activities taken by teachers in order to play new roles in competence-based education programs. RQ: Types of professional development activities undertaken by teachers, how these activities differ among schools and extent of ability to identify elements of approach

A5

A6

sampling

A1

Students in a six-week graduate educational technology elective summer course.

A2

44 officers working or connected to the 5 councils in Botswana.

A3

43 patients and 21 other people present at the time of the cardiac event.

sampling

A4

The study uses one cohort of LEAD that consisted of 25 small business owner managers. 18 articles, 7 letters to the editor and 5 faculty handbooks

A5

A6

30 PVSE teachers from nine different schools

Data collection
Article 1
I.

Classroom observations or video recording of the use of virtual world in world class sessions.

II. Students discourse in written text, including

students blogs, chat box text and asynchronous discussion postings.

Data collection
Article 2 Interviews with the 44 officers needed to explain on the environmental issues and planning to: 1)define general terms and how information use to relate factors 2) explore the findings in depth, 3)develop relationship and find example, 4) search for evidence to refute the finding 5) have more open discussion to confirm the findings.

Data collection
Article 3
i.

Semi structured face to face interview with the patients admitted to two district hospitals for a cardiac event. Semi structures face to face interview with the patients associates.

ii.

Data collection
Article 4
i.

Interviews and observations by the researcher to provide information on how LEAD was impacting them both personally and professionally. Information were thematically analysed and identified, hence used in the networked learning.

ii.

Data collection
Article 5

Reviewing literature to assess the specific requirements in awarding tenures

Data collection
Article 5
Semi-structured interviews (open-ended questions) conducted with an interview protocol to explore on: Respondents background ii. Implementation of teachers professional development activities, SOAP principles and IPM.
i.

Findings & data analysis


Via CCA, the salient theme in the students reactions were; a) students frustration with technical issues and learning functionalities of virtual worlds, b) need for socialization, and c) appreciation for the potential of virtual world for teaching and learning. The analysis has implication on how students learn in the virtual worlds and the changing roles of instructors in virtual worlds as well.

A1

Findings & data analysis


After CCA, there were 8 main categories discovered; motivators, role context, dynamic project information context, experiential knowledge, patent of information use, informational power, strategies for participation, and situated power.

A2

The analysis has implication in showing on how the information used by the planners empowers their decision and behaviours during the environmental planning process.

Findings & data analysis


The interviews were tape recorded. The data were divided into 3 groups (1) Non delayers (2) Delayers (3) Extended delayers

A3

The data were then analyzed using the constant comparative method

Findings & data analysis


Five learning spaces were identified to show where the delegates were learning on LEAD, namely: LEAD, 2. reflective 3. Social 4. Peer-to-peer and 5.future

A4

Findings & data analysis


Through CCA, the factors that university administrators need to evaluate before awarding of tenure and promotion are categorized for example; the candidates ability to increase competence, size of faculty, organizational structure, context variables, and teaching versus research commitment

A5

Findings & data analysis


Interviews were fully transcribed, followed by a
coding procedure where core concepts were coded into 11 main categories and 62 sub categories.

A6

Data collected were compared between categories The analysis has implication on views of teachers on professional and career development, their motivation to participation in development activities and actual learning in the process.

Conclusion
Strengths
Effectiveness CCA is useful in identifying important and prominent themes or concepts from a broad exploratory approach but

Weaknesses
Rigidity of data due to the use of multiple coders and data sources some will disregard the rigor of data collection and analysis. (Leong et al., 2010)

Conclusion
Strengths

Weaknesses
Time consuming

Generates analytical data which contribute to understanding

Conclusion
On Etic versus Emic dilemma
Most studies assumed to put emphasis on emic

approach (Douglas, 2003)

but sometimes there are failures by the

researchers to differentiate between these two types of approach when interpreting data causing confusion in coding/conception of data categories, making it unreliable for generalization. (Zubaran, 2009)